Jan 28 2009

Product differentiation in imperfectly competitive markets – the MacBook Wheel

In  IB Economics, we are currently learning about how firms in imperfectly competitive markets differentiate their products in order to increase their market power and their price-making power.

In a market with a few large firms such as the laptop computer market, companies must do what they can to increase demand for their own products over those of their competitors. Apple Computer is an example of a company that has successfully differentiated its line of laptop computers in recent years, regularly improving the features of its line of MacBooks to attract consumers away from its competitors and into the world of Macs.

Last year Apple launched the MacBook Air, the lightest and thinnest laptop on the market, creating a huge buzz in the technology world and converting millions to Apple’s line of laptops. This year, Apple has launched yet another innovation in laptop computing, in the hope of once again increasing demand for its products, and making consumers think they cannot live without the sleek, shiny Apple computers. This year’s innovation? The “MacBook Wheel”… watch:

Apple Introduces Revolutionary New Laptop With No Keyboard

The goal of an imperfectly competitive firm like Apple is to increase its market power by increasing demand for its particular product through product differentiation, advertising, developing brand loyalty, and “hype”: all forms of non-price competition. If Apple were to simply charge a lower price than its competitors for its products, it would also succeed in increasing the amount of computers it sells to consumers, but may also end up accepting lower profits due to the lower prices it must sell for.

Through differentiation, which means making its products unique and attractive to consumers, Apple attempts to increase market demand for its computers, while simultaneously making demand less elastic. With higher, more inelastic demand, Apple gains price-making power over the laptop computer market, as can be seen in the graphs below, which show that after the successful launch of a new product like the MacBook wheel Apple is able to charge a higher price, produce a similar quantity, and earn greater economic profits.

In the video, one customer says that he’d buy “buy almost anything if it’s shiny and its made by Apple”. Such statements reflect that among loyal customers, demand for Apple’s products is highly inelastic. While the firm is certainly not a monopolist in the market for laptop computers, Apple has surely succeeded to increase its market power and thus its power over prices through product differentiation, brand loyalty, and the “hype” surrounding the launch of new products like the MacBook Wheel.

Discussion questions:

  1. In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
  2. Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
  3. What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

244 responses so far

244 Responses to “Product differentiation in imperfectly competitive markets – the MacBook Wheel”

  1. Guillermo Pereyraon 29 Jan 2009 at 11:26 am

    Dear Jason:

    I think you are right about the concept on product differentiation, but you are wrong about mac book wheel. It is a joke by Onion New Network.

    The best for you.

  2. Jason Welkeron 29 Jan 2009 at 3:50 pm

    Thanks, Guillermo…

    I know… The blog post was written "tongue in cheek", i.e. the joke of the MacBook Wheel can still be used to illustrate the economic concept of product differentiation!

    Thanks, Jason

    -This message was written on a MacBook Wheel

  3. Rocioperezon 05 Feb 2009 at 2:10 am

    Apple has done a great job when it comes to differentiation since all their computers, ipods..etc have a very unique design that make them stand out from all other computer designs. This is like the example of the toothpaste section in a Chinese store in which there is so much variation that advertising is used by firms to catch the consumers eye. Due to branding toothpastes such as Colgate are more prominent.

    In this case Apple uses their distinct feature, the "click-wheel" on the MacBook Wheel. The click-wheel was clearly a huge success amongst customers since "nothing is more simple than a single, giant button" as one of the promoters in the video stated. He also adds that Apple's philosophy is to create products that are simple to use. This is another advantageous aspect of the click wheel as it is easy to use, thus enabling a broader range of the public to enjoy it such as younger kids and older people. Anyways, as Mr. Welker wrote, branding is one way for a firm to increase the inelastic demand of customers to increase their prices and in turn profits.

    Although Apple is not a complete monopoly, it can use other methods to increase profits such as price discrimination. This causes the producer surplus area to increase and the consumer surplus area to decrease.

  4. bill farrenon 05 Feb 2009 at 10:34 am

    "This message was written on a MacBook Wheel"

    Too funny.

  5. B Joneson 06 Feb 2009 at 10:35 am

    I am a huge fan of Apple, always have been. I'm always impressed with the speed in which they are able to make one of their latest products seem like an antique. For example: I got a Nano 3rd generation for my birthday last year and its already been taken over by the newer, sleeker, shiner, etc. version.

    This product differentiation and timing of new releases is, in my opinion, key to Apple's success. Even though they are seemingly releasing new ipods or laptops every few months, its helping to keep the customers that are looking to replace their "antiques". Not everyone can afford, especially in these times, to buy and new version of the Ipod every time its released; however, when Joe the Plumber's mom is looking for a Christmas present for her little boy, she knows that Apple always has the lastest technology at the ready.

    Its nice to see something as common as the keyboard finally being modernized. Congratulations Apple.

  6. Christian Evertzon 28 Feb 2009 at 12:09 am

    The fact that mp3 players are referred to as Ipods by the teenagers shows how successfully Apple managed to increase their market share through product differentiation. Brand loyalty is so huge that consumers don't even know other mp3 player brands and stick to buying apple products. Apple is a perfect example of product differentiation and the company has been so successful that it sort of created a new market where it enjoys monopolistic power.

  7. Christian Clausenon 03 Mar 2009 at 5:21 pm

    At first I thought this was ridiculous, but after reading Guillermo's post I am relieved. But yes, this is a very good example on how Apple tries to differentiate their products, but it's also an example on how you can actually lose a large market share if you come out with a product differentiated in a way which makes it worse.

  8. Younes Huberon 04 Mar 2009 at 3:38 am

    The use of the macbook wheel as an example of product differentiation is very effective. The macbook wheel is definitely something out of the ordinary and IS different from other laptops. Apple has large amount market power especially when it comes to mp3 players; I think we can soon say that iPods to mp3 players will be what mp3 players once were to cd players. They have totally revolutionized products with their flashy yet simple designs and their unique style which is recurrent in their products. Furthermore, Apple has a huge amount of loyal customers; this means that should apple release something like the macbook wheel, which customers will still buy it because they trust Apple to create superb products, if not simply to test out Apple's newest laptop. Also the fact that apple constantly has newer versions of previous products makes these rivalrous products always the latest hit, meaning people will want to buy these, especially if they now have an older, outdated version

  9. Gabrielon 04 Mar 2009 at 6:33 am

    I completely agree with Younes, even though this is fake, it can still be applied to product differentiation. Making the Macbook with only one wheel and no keyboard would be a revolutioary idea. This is a clear form of product differentiation. It would be completely different from all the other standard laptops. The ultimate goal of this is to increase demand and make it more inelastic. It becomes more inelastic because if Apple were to raise the price then consumers would still buy this for various reasons. Consumers would buy this because of its new revolutionary idea that makes it simpler than any other laptop. Everybody would want the latest apple computer, just like everybody wants an iphone. Some consumers would also buy it just beacuse they are loyal to apple, just like someone states in the video. Apple is not a monopoly since some other firms also exist in the computer market, but since they have a large percent of market share, this is possible. Infact this is exactly the reason for this product differentiation, it is to increase demand and therefore also increase market share.

  10. Daniel D'Amcoon 05 Mar 2009 at 5:38 am

    Apple always has to come out with new ideas and inventions. They do an excellent job of it as well they are always thinking of new ideas, at first it was the mp3 player, then the touch wheel and eventually the touch screen. Apple does a great job at product differentiation and advertising. A big part of apples sales comes from brand awareness and its advertising. There are a lot of different mp3 players out there, but the only company that I know makes them is Apple.

  11. Denizon 16 Mar 2009 at 9:36 pm

    I have to agree with christian evertz on this one, their marketting strategies are amazingly effective. Like he said, brand loyalty is a very important factor, an apple has surely established a secure root, because I also call such technology Ipods, and never mp3 player. Maybe its also just easier to say "Ipod" instead, but whatever the reason is, for most people, there is no other choice than to buy one of their products. Apple surely deserved this power over the market.

  12. Chamonix.echl.f09on 07 Jan 2010 at 10:53 am

    1. In the Apple demand curve, the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation. This is because customer demand for Apple has increased as they believe that it is worth paying more for an Apple product because of differentiation.

    2. Over time, Apple will stop making supernormal profits and make only normal profits. This is because their supernormal profits will attract other firms to the market. As there are no barriers to entry in a monopolistically competitive market, these firms will become a part of the market. This will increase supply and therefore reduce demand, returning the profits of all firms to normal.

    3. Firms such as Apple have attempted to differentiate their products through design and advertising. New designs, such as Apple’s super light computers (or the big wheel on the MacBook Wheel!) can attract customers to products. Laptop advertisements always seem to list new features. I like to think that I would not buy a MacBook Wheel as it does not work properly. Although I have a PC and prefer PC to Mac (I am one of few!) I did buy an Apple iPod. I would not really have bought any other kind of MP3 player. I believe that this is due to effective advertising and also good design on the part of Apple—iPods work, and I know that. This makes me think that perhaps if MacBook Wheel became the standard for computers, as iPods are for MP3s, then I might buy it.

    Chamonix

  13. Trevor.echl.f09on 09 Jan 2010 at 12:54 pm

    1. After successful product differentiation, consumers see a real and discernable difference between the product Apple is offering as opposed to other brands. This would probably mean that Apple computers would have something that no other computer has as of yet. This would make the demand become more inelastic and the slope increase. Consumers would still be relatively interested in buying the product if the price went up, because in their opinion there is no real alternative to the Apple computer.

    2. If the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, then eventually Apple’s supernormal economic profits will eventually become only normal profits. If Apple wants to maintain its supernormal profits in the long-run, it will have to break out of the cycle of monopolistic competition. Therefore, it would have to provide a product that differentiates itself from other laptop computers with technology that will not be available to their competitors for some time. This will ensure their dominance in the industry.

    3. One technological example that I can immediately identify as a company trying to differentiate their product is Apple with the iPhone. The market for cell phones has been fairly consistent with many different companies offering slightly different features. What Apple tried to do with their iPhone was to completely revolutionize the way phones are used by inserting many new “apps” unseen in phones before into their apparatus. Now, it is not clear the full effect of this move by Apple, but it is certainly clear that this new product has done very well and has differentiated itself from other cell phones in a drastic way, leading to supernormal profits for Apple. And, no, I don’t think I would ever buy a MacBook Wheel. Though I do love The Onion because they bring up a very good point on how far this technology will go before becoming simply ridiculous.

    * Trevor Tezel *

  14. Trevor.echl.f09on 09 Jan 2010 at 1:01 pm

    Chamonix,

    I completely agree with your responses to the first two questions. As for your emphasis on design and advertising, I had not considered it before but these sheer factors alone may be able to create product differentiation. Many consumers can often be wooed by a well thought-out advertising campaign that can turn a mediocre and typical product into the hot new item of the season. I’m just not sure if this can maintain the long-term product differentiation needed for long-term supernormal profits. You also mention design which I think is something that can be emulated by other products unless they just develop the stigma of not being “cool.” Speaking of which, I am also a PC so you’re not alone. ? But I do have to say, I hope your last comment was made in a sarcastic manner regarding your purchase of the MacBook Wheel if it became the new thing. I know at least I’ve spent too long getting to the point where I can type fairly fast to move to a wheel….

    * Trevor Tezel *

  15. Meiling.echl.f09on 09 Jan 2010 at 1:24 pm

    After successful product differentiation, Apple appears to project the image that the particular product it intends to put out on the market is totally unique and unlike any existing product on the market. Whether this supposed new innovation is superficial or genuinely useful does not matter at first. This is because a good marketing campaign which enables Apple products to transcend other computer products in the eyes of its customers. As a result demand becomes more inelastic, as consumers are led to believe that Apple, and only Apple is able to provide that specific type of product, thus eliminating any viable competition, which in turn enables them to charge higher prices.

    If the market for laptop computers is indeed monopolistically competitive, then what was once supernormal profits for Apple will become normal profits in the long run as other companies copy Apple's innovation techniques. In order to break the cycle and maintain profits in the long-run, Apple must constantly innovate – and therefore invest large amounts in R&D – and create new markets and new needs for consumers, or improve vastly on an existing market so that they achieve overwhelming dominance of that industry, as with the iPod and the Mp3 player market.

    I think a way in which Apple is particularly successful at differentiating its products is by building a whole culture around its computers and entertainment products by developing a very unique and specific brand image. One thing about Apple that other companies do not have is its universal recognition. Aesthetically Apple is an iconic brand because it creates very elegant, clean, minimalist designs in very few colorways (with the exception of the iPod mini). This image is replicated across a wide variety of platforms including the design of the advertisements, the store layouts and the website. If you were to take an Apple product and smash it, it would still be recognizable as an Apple product.

    Similarly, Apple caters to the creative types, although not so much so anymore, in the same way the IBM and Windows caters to office workers. Apple succeeds at product differentiation because it carves out a new niche in the market. Before Apple, there were no computers/software that specifically catered to creative individuals.

    I don't think I'd ever buy a Wheel, it seems a bit silly and inefficient but I guess that is how Apple's innovation process works. I'd rather stick with a keyboard. I've noticed that the Wheel has been taken off the Apple website and no news about it has come out since mid-2009, so maybe Apple has realized its lack of actual potential.

  16. Meiling.echl.f09on 09 Jan 2010 at 1:28 pm

    @Trevor,

    With regards to your comment about the iPhone, I think a reason why Apple was so successful with it was because it was marketed as not a phone but 'an iPod with phone capabilities'. Apple took a lot of care to emphasize its power as a multi-media platform and communications device instead of just a phone, or even a smart phone. One way in which they highlighted this was, like you said, with the App store, allowing users to customize their iPhone with fun and useful applications in a way that no other company had ever achieved before.

  17. Ralph.echl.f09on 09 Jan 2010 at 9:25 pm

    1. In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    Apple always creates products which are different to their competitors, they create their own uniqueness, which consumers are very attracted to, as it is something different. The slope would rise due to demand becoming more inelastic. As the consumers desires a apple product opposed to another brand.

    2. Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    In the long term, supernormal profits would become normal profits, however Apple would have to differentiate in their products to stand out from the crowd, and create their own uniqueness to dominate the market and to continue to make supernormal profits.

    3. What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Apple and different companies over the years, have tried to bring in new technology and design to attract us. Apple uniqueness is its OS, design and simplicity. Some consumers just want to be "up to date" with the latest gadgets and technology, and then most consumers will tag along after they realize they fall behind. Personally I wouldn't by the wheel as I believe I would find it impractical. It would have been a total flop in my opinion.

    @Trevor, liking the comparison with the iPhone, great example of how apple was innovative and was spot on.

    @Meiling, Id agree with you the Wheel just isn't practical and I would stick to the keyboard, agreeing with your point on the marketing as the ipod with phone capibilities!

    "I'm a PC" -Microsoft

  18. Masaya.echl.f09on 10 Jan 2010 at 12:16 am

    1. The slopes of the demand curve increases after successfully product differentiation by Apple because more consumers attracted to the uniqueness to Apple’s technology, and hence purchasing their products. In addition, it indicates that the PES is become less elastic. In other words, more consumers are becoming addicted to Apple products.

    2. Over the long-run, the supernormal profit Apple is currently gaining gradually starts to diminish and turn into normal profits – the minimal amount of profit needed to operate the firm. Apple needs to continue effective advertisement and research and development of new techonology to attract more consumers in order to maintain its supernormal profits.

    3. Some real ways Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years are Macbook Air, the thinnest and lightest Apple laptop; and Windows 7, the newest Windows OS. I would NOT buy a Macbook Wheel if it were real for its slow typing speed and ridiculous predictive sentence techonology.

  19. Masaya.echl.f09on 11 Jan 2010 at 1:44 pm

    Chamonix>>

    Do you think consumers are fascinated by Apple's product for their illusions created by their uniqueness and effective advertisement? On the other hand, do consumers focus on the practicality of the product or the appearances of the products?

  20. Elijah.echl.f09on 12 Jan 2010 at 1:26 am

    1. The demand curve increases after a successful product because the more successful products (especially in a row) increases customer loyalty. Customers consistently see good products and begin to just assume the company in question makes good products.

    2. Over time in a monopolistically competitive environment, Apple profits will fall to equilibrium with that of its competitors. The only way to maintain its profits are to distinguish itself from its competitors perhaps by advertising or superior R&D and potentially with a pure lucky break-through.

    3. Some of the real ways companies like Apple have attempted to distinguish their products are by ridiculous market campaigns, and consistently claiming that there products are safer and easier to use have more support. I would of course never buy a MacBook wheel being that I have a deep and abiding hatred for all things Mac being that they charge more in effect for "support" and "compatibility" and I know how to use a computer well enough to do those things by myself. Additionally this particular product would be useless.

  21. Elijah.echl.f09on 12 Jan 2010 at 1:33 am

    @Meiling.echl.f09

    Apple's strong point has always been marketing. Consistently their marketing campaigns have been more successful to the point where some of them have become cultural standards ("I'm a Mac, and I'm a PC".) Windows has never achieved this success in its campaigns, and consistently gets bad press due to accusations of monopoly. Ultimately when you buy any apple product you are very much paying for an image and pretty colors.

    While their ad campaigns so successful it doesn't really matter if the product is any good. People are hooked on the Apple Mythos.

  22. Mattea.echl.f09on 12 Jan 2010 at 5:38 am

    1. In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    As Apple differentiates their products, their demand increases. The products become more appealing to the consumers. Along with this demand increase, demand becomes less elastic. Less elastic demand has a higher slope. This is why the slope increases.

    2. Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    In monopolistic competition, all supernormal profits are competed away in the long run. The only way for a company to increase or maintain their profits is to create new products.

    3. What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Apple and other companies have differentiated their products by improving on old ones, such as the release of new iPod models, and by creating entirely new products, like the iPhone. Companies also put a lot of money into advertising, like with the Mac vs. PC commercials. These make Apple's product seem superior to Microsoft's, though these differences may not actually exist.

  23. Mattea.echl.f09on 12 Jan 2010 at 5:41 am

    Elijah,

    Would you say that Apple concentrates specifically on making their Macs seem to operate better? I've noticed that there seems to be a sort of Mac culture, and that people seem to buy Macs because they're cool. I think this is a highly desireable form of non-price competition for a company. It could perhaps be even more effective than a superior product; why spend money to develop something better if buying what you already have is the cool thing to do?

  24. Ralph.echl.f09on 12 Jan 2010 at 8:18 pm

    Another point, We can not forget that apple as well as being an operating system, is also a computer system itself, its a design. Where as Microsoft is only an operating system , and the computer system itself is build by many computer system manufacturers around the world. E.g. Sony, Packard Bell, HP etc. Which is also what I believe is part of Apples's success, is having created something unique and keeping it unique by investing more money into R&D.

    @Mattea

    You are right about their coolness, however the main aim of apple when they started was to provide consumers with another operating system, an option, that was better. Apple will have to continue to develop their products to maintain their uniqueness, otherwise its gets old, and people wouldn't be willing to buy it.

  25. sara.echl.f09on 12 Jan 2010 at 11:44 pm

    1. The slope of the demand curve increases because apple is always coming up with new products to interest their customers and bring more and more people in. With the demand increase, the demand also becomes inelastic because people become more dependant on apple products rather than products from a different brand.

    2. In the long-run apple's supernormal profits will become normal profits. Apple must create new products and bring new clients in if they want to increase they're profits again.

    3. Apple constantly releases improvements of previous products and every six months, thy release a new product. They also put a lot of money into advertising their new products to make them appeal to the public so that they get bought. I don't think I would buy a Macbook Wheel because I don't think i could get used to typing on a touch screen and the computer finishing my sentences for me.

  26. Dennis.echl.f09on 13 Jan 2010 at 2:03 am

    1. The slope of the demand curve increases after this product differentiation because consumers are interested in new technology and are interested in the firm that releases it.

    2. Assuming a monopolistically competitive market, the long-run profits for apple will always be only normal profits because supernormal profits will still always be competed away. In order to maintain supernormal profits, Apple will have to continue to innovate at a constant rate.

    3. The history of attempted product differentiation in the computer industry started with laptops. When laptops were first invented by Osborne Computers (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/sunday-toi/open-space/Who-invented-the-laptop-and-which-company-first-produced-it-commercially/articleshow/991598.cms) it started the wave of new innovations in the computer industry. Since then, things like wireless mouses and flatscreens have been innovations, along with increased hardware. I would not buy the macbook wheel because it seems like it would be really annoying.

    Dennis

  27. chamonix.echl.f09on 13 Jan 2010 at 2:33 am

    Masaya,

    In response to your questions:

    I do think that customers buy Apple because of their uniqueness and advertisement. I think that one of the especially effective things about Apple's product differentiation is that the public does a great deal of it. I am very familiar with the iPod ads featuring a silhouette listening to an iPod against a brightly colored background, but I also see people use iPods every day. My iPod came with Apple logo stickers which I have seen on everything from cars to ski helmets. Apple also has excellent product placement (Carrie Bradshaw, the protagonist of the Sex and The City TV series, uses an Apple laptop in almost every episode!) There is such intense brand loyalty to Apple that I think that consumers help to expand use of the products.

    I also think that customers are drawn to the design of the products. I have to admit it: my laptop (Compaq) is not pretty. My iPod (blue Nano) is. The designers of Apple have made a very beautiful product, and people want products that look good.

    Finally, I do think that consumers focus on practicality. Apple products are proven to work, and many programs such as iMovie are considered some of the best in the field.

    So I think that it is for all of these reasons that people buy Apple products. However, I would say that the first–uniqueness–is the strongest factor. I think most people who bought an iPhone wanted to not just have all of the features and abilities of an iPhone, but also the statement "I own an iPhone."

    Thanks for the interesting questions!

    Also, Trevor, in response to your question about me saying I might buy a Wheel:

    Five years ago, would you have said you would buy a cell phone with one button? Would you buy an iPhone today (or at least be happy if you got it for a gift)?

    Chamonix

  28. Jacob.echl.f09on 13 Jan 2010 at 5:15 am

    1. This is because the demand becomes more price inelastic as a result of the new innovation.

    2. In a monopolistically competitive market, profits are always normal in the long run. The product’s elasticity will become more elastic over time because the excitement of the new innovation would have worn out and a new product may have appeared. Apple must continue to innovate or increase advertising to keep normal profits in the long run or else a similar company would overrun them.

    3. In real life, Nintendo’s DS and Sony’s PSP have continuously fought to pull ahead. The DS has a touch screen, but the PSP can access the internet, then the DS evolved to also include internet and a built in camera. These two handheld gaming systems will continue to innovate until they get the upper hand. And, uhhh… no

    Jacob

  29. Jacob.echl.f09on 13 Jan 2010 at 5:21 am

    sara.echl.f09,

    You and others have all been making a good observation in that Apple is constantly trying to improve. With their iPhones, they have to compete with products such as Verizon and AT&T's 3G phones. Also in regards to music they have to compete with Microsoft's Zune.

    When it really comes down to it, it doesn't always come down to advertisement, it comes down to the uniqueness of the Apps each product offers. They are all essentially the same product, but some companies offers better apps than the others, which makes them better

    -Jacob

  30. victoria.echl.f09on 13 Jan 2010 at 6:25 am

    1. The slope of the demand increases after the new innovation. First because there is a demand for the new product. Customers who are fan of apple want to have the new product as quick as possible, and new customers are attracted. Secondly because with the new product, the price of old models can go down and this can be interesting for customers for whom apple has been too expensive up to that time

    2. In the assumption of a monopolistic competition the profit of apple should go down over time when competitors catch up with their products. In the long run to maintain its profit, they will have to develop new products.

    3. Apple and its competitors have attempted to find new features for the customers like touch screen, voice recognition, Tablet PC where you can write with a pen on the screen. The Mac Book Wheel sounds very interesting but I don’t like the look of the wheel and specially it will not give me more functions and I would take more time to type.

  31. victoria.echl.f09on 13 Jan 2010 at 6:28 am

    Hey Jacob

    I really like your example with the Nintendo DS and the PSP it is so true that these two compete very hard against each other and if one doesn’t bring a new product at least every year then they will be lost in the market.

    Vica

  32. sara.echl.f09on 13 Jan 2010 at 7:45 am

    Jacob,

    I like your comparison of the Nintendo DS and the PSP. They are just like apple and Microsoft: always competing against each other to make sure they stay on top and don't lose their place in the market.

    Sara

  33. Dennis.echl.f09on 13 Jan 2010 at 11:20 am

    Hey Vica,

    I like how you mentioned the tablet pc because its one of the more interesting new developments in computers and I definitely agree with you that the macbook wheel would slow me down because it seems a lot more difficult to navigate through the system than just a regular computer.

    Dennis

  34. Eline.echl.f09on 13 Jan 2010 at 12:38 pm

    1.Apple invests a lot in R&D, or Research and Development, to distinguish their product from products of competing firms in such a way that it does not scare away customers and even makes it seem more attractive and advanced than competing products. With their huge marketing campaigns Apple increases the popularity of its products and thus also demand.

    2.Characteristics of a monopolistic market are easy access to information and no barriers for entry to the market. Assuming the laptop market is one, then it would not be hard for new firms to enter the market and imitate Apple's technology or even come up with a better technology. In that case Apple will no longer have supernormal profits but normal profits in the long run. To avoid this Apple should research ways to differentiate their product even more from other laptops in order to increase its monopolistic power, hence increasing chances of earning supernormal profits.

    3.Apple and competitors are constantly seeking new technologies with which they can impress the public more. They often seek for ways to increase the number and quality of the functions their products can perform – people like having a multifunctional phone such as the iPhone. Apple is also proud of its anti-virus systems, it is much harder to get viruses with Apple than it is with Windows. I would not buy a Macbook Wheel – I wouldn't like to know that I have learned to type for nothing. Anyhow, I do agree with Chamonix' point that people not buying the Macbook Wheel could change their minds if the product is advertised enough.

    Eline

  35. Laura Yilmazon 14 Jan 2010 at 12:38 am

    1. In the Apple demand curve, the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation. This is because customer demand for Apple has increased as they believe that it is worth paying more for an Apple product because of differentiation.

    2. In the assumption of a monopolistic competition the profit of apple should go down over time when competitors catch up with their products. In the long run to maintain its profit, they will have to develop new products.

    3. In real life, Nintendo’s DS and Sony’s PSP have continuously fought to pull ahead. The DS has a touch screen, but the PSP can access the internet, then the DS evolved to also include internet and a built in camera.

  36. Laura Yilmazon 14 Jan 2010 at 12:46 am

    dear eline,

    i think your answers are very wise and thoughtful.

    laura

  37. Eline.echl.f09on 14 Jan 2010 at 4:19 am

    Hey Vica,

    I really like your point about the lower price of old Apple laptops contributing to the increase in demand. I had only considered the increased demand for the new product and not the effect this would have on older models, so thank you for bringing that up!

    Eline

  38. issa.echl.f09on 15 Jan 2010 at 1:18 am

    In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    After successful product differentiation by apple the slope of the demand curve increases because demand increases. The number of people willing to pay the higher price for a computer increases as a macbook wheel is very expensive. The number of people buying lower priced macbook computers decreases as more people want to buy the expensive macbook wheel. This increases the slope of the demand curve.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    Economic profits will be competed away. Apple has to keep differentiating its product so that it can maintain a monopoly on specific areas of its market.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Over the years Apple has differentiated its products by continually updating its ipods and computers. Because nothing apple creates stays as the new thing for long, people are always willing to buy new products, even if they are only slightly improved. I might be inclined to buy a macbook wheel if it were real as it as almost as dysfunctional as the macbook air i really wanted.

  39. Issa.echl.f09on 15 Jan 2010 at 1:29 am

    Hey Eline,

    I really like the way you explained the answers to all of the questions in relation to economic theory. By explaining what the characteristics of a monopolistic competition is you relate the issue of the macbook wheel really well.

    You answered that the increase in the slope of the demand curve is attributed to an increase in demand. However, wouldn't that just cause the demand curve to shift?

    -Issa

  40. Marcelo.echl.f09on 15 Jan 2010 at 6:39 am

    After product differentiation, apple has added some unique and attractive characteristics to its products, which make consumers want the good more and care less about the price. Thus, the demand becomes less elastic.

    Indeed, as in any monoplistic competitive market, in the long run, apple's profits will become only normal profits. The only way it could its supernormal profits is through making its product so different from the rest and so superior in fact, so attractive to consumers, that no other firm would be able to compete.

    These types of companies are always trying to research and develop new technologies which are better than its competitors; they innovate, and create special and attractive designs which people would like; they also do lots of branding and advertising to manipulate consumers and make them believe their product is the best. No, I actually would not buy the Mac Wheel: I prefer microsoft.

  41. Marcelo.echl.f09on 15 Jan 2010 at 6:48 am

    Laura,

    I like your example about the Nintendo DS and PSP. It is true that nowadays one of the businesses that provide more money and have more competition is the games business: Microsoft Xbox is always competing against Sony Playstation and Nintendo Wii; they are always trying to innovate and create more realistic games and gameplay, with better graphics and more technology to attract consumers. They mainly use non-price competition.

  42. Catherine.echl.f09on 16 Jan 2010 at 6:50 am

    1.) The demand curve changes after successful differentiation. Since Apple has differentiated its product exceptionally well, the consumer demand for it has increased. Due to Apple’s differentiation, consumers can see a difference between an Apple and, say, a PC, and are willing to pay more for the Apple. Customer loyalty to Apple also makes its products more inelastic – people want them and are willing to pay for them.

    2.) In the long run, Apple will return to normal profits. With its new product, Apple is enjoying supernormal profits. However, Apple’s success will draw other firms into the market (since entry is not blocked), and the profit will then become more evenly distributed among the various competitors. To maintain its supernormal profits, Apple would have to maintain technological supremacy over its competitors. If Apple differentiated its products and promoted technology that was not yet available to its competitors, people would definitely want more Apple products.

    3.) I think Apple has differentiated many of its products. I associate Apple with a high standard of technology and an aesthetic appeal – I get this opinion from Apple’s differentiation. This makes me think of iPods. When Apple released them into the market, they were by far the coolest thing for months. No other product was able to defeat the iPod. Even today, I would still buy an iPod instead of any other MP3 player. This is surely thanks to the advertising and hype that Apple created for its product. If the MacBook Wheel was real, I probably would not buy it because I am not very interested in the latest technology. However, I will also add that I have my own MacBook, and I absolutely love it. If anything were to ever happen to it, I would definitely purchase the MacBook Wheel as a replacement.

  43. Catherine.echl.f09on 16 Jan 2010 at 7:00 am

    Hi Mei,

    You mentioned that Apple’s products are inefficient – or that the innovation process is inefficient. I don’t really agree with you on that. Apple seems to have created some environmentally conscious products, especially with its new computers and iPods and such. Then again, I may just be falling prey to the advertising campaigns they have put on. And, in general, I really do like Macs.

    Happy New Year!

    Catherine

  44. Armando.echl.f09on 19 Jan 2010 at 1:17 pm

    Marcelo and other students,

    The example of the Nintendo DS and PSP, its true, both of these companies Nintendo and Sony must compete by developing their portable consoles in order to gain more money and popularity. Nevertheless, if we talk about bigger consoles or products by the companies of Microsoft, Sony and Nintendo, they have a very tight competition due to the greater quality than portable products. Sony making Playstation 3 and older versions and Microsoft making Xbox 360 and older versions, both have a very tense and powerful competition; but on the other hand, Nintendo producing the Wii, has sold numerous copies of their console, due to the motion sensor, but the problem for Sony and Microsoft is that this Wii is just a demo or trial version, which is why is so cheap and has still gotten massive amount of money. The issue for these two companies is that once Nintendo brings up its actual and real version of the console both will be left behind. However, Microsoft and Wii has gotten a massive advantage since their consoles can be pirated and u can use cheap copy games, but not PS3, due to the blue ray games, which are of much better quality than the previous ones. As well Project Nathal from Microsoft will push Xbox to the skies as is the only console to have an optical motion sensor for all its games. The aims of these companies is to develop their consoles into a more realistic environment so that you feel in the game by having wireless controls, high quality graphics, surround sound and motion sensors. In addition; for instance, the new Google phone the“Nexus One”is a great competition for the iPhone since it has the same qualities but is much cheaper, which will cause to gain popularity and be bought rather than the Apple product.

  45. Armando.echl.f09on 19 Jan 2010 at 1:29 pm

    Due to the development and change Apple has obtained unique and sophisticated qualities of its products, causing consumers to desire this product not matter its price, causing the demand to become elastic. As a result of this characteristics Apple is at the top, but still has competition, so if in the long run apple doesn’t develop its products then it will lose its average profits. Both companies have great publicity to gain popularity and both develp their products just like people want them. I would rather Microsoft; I don’t really like Mac, except for iPod, so I wouldn’t buy the Mac Wheel.

  46. tiffany_williamon 23 Dec 2010 at 1:24 am

    hi # Catherine.echl.f09.

    i really love your explanation :)

  47. tiffany_williamon 23 Dec 2010 at 1:31 am

    After successful product differentiation by apple the slope of the demand curve increases because demand increases. People will start buying expensive macbook wheel instead of the lower priced macbook. As a result, this increases the slope of the demand curve.

    In the long run, Apple will return to normal profits. Apple will be having supernormal profits , however the disadvantage is that, this will invite other competitors as there are not blocked entry. Apple should start inventing new ideas which will draw the attention of the customers which cant be found in other compeititors.

    For apple, the brand itself has invented various kinds of technology products with different designs. The software especially in the macbook, has made it different from the other computers which use microsoft or windows xp. Having a macbook would definitely be my choice.

  48. Fabian_MontoyaFendton 23 Dec 2010 at 9:36 am

    In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    This happens because as the apple product is more unlike other products it is categorized as another type of product unique in the market and people suddenly start buying it they consider that there are no substitutes for the apple product and thus the demand curve increases.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    If it is assumed that the laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, over time as products get similar the profits of apple may fall. If apple wishes to maintain a high level of profits over time it most constantly effectively differentiate its products from regular competition.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Some real ways in which the competitors in the technological industry has created differences between the products is in their design, hardware, battery life, and applications already installed in the computer such as in a Mac and applications available for installation. If the Macbook wheel were real indeed I would consider on buying it, however I might need to test if first to see if it really suites my needs.

  49. vainat.desaion 13 Jan 2011 at 6:14 am

    Hey Jason,

    You're right about the product differentiation by the Apple Co. is very innovative. Also that i totally agree with your argument that "the goal of an imperfectly competitive firm like Apple is to increase its market power by increasing demand for its particular product through product differentiation, advertising, developing brand loyalty, and “hype” ". Although, this hype is indeed very superficial in a way. In todays world, when people want to buy gadgets at the cheapest possible prices, Apple sells its products at a very high range(which actually does in a way help them as it's hence considered as a luxury brand) and is hence losing out on a lot on the overall market. Also that the "wheel", if it was real, will take a lot of time to get incorporated into the masses's minds and routine as typing on the qwerty keypad has been going on since ages now and as it can be seen in the video, the "wheel" is pretty slow and much harder to use. It's just similar to the wheel in the iPods, except its on a laptop. Apple does come up with product differentiations but I'm not sure if they will be able to break the market with this new design. If Apple does wish to maintain its profits in the longer run, it'll have to come up with some new and rather revolutionary and substantial designs. The slope of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation as the demand increases due to the introduction of a new and so-called revolutionary design and technology.

  50. vainat.desaion 13 Jan 2011 at 6:27 am

    ^adding to my above comment, I would like to say that if were the Wheel was real, i wouldn't buy it as it is completely unnecessary and a product of no use.

    @tiffany_williams:

    I agree with your point that the demand curve increases as because of product differentiation but i did not get a reason to why people will buy "expensive" laptops and not the "cheap" ones.

  51. Gunnhildur Ómon 13 Jan 2011 at 8:56 pm

    1. In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    What happens is that the customers become loyal to Apple and continue to buy their products, that is because the have managed to differentiate their products from other companies selling computers. With this they attract their customers with the uniqueness of their computers and in addition to this they always have the newest technology and people tend to buy the newest product. So when people buy an apple computer it is difficult to switch back to a regular PC computer because of the uniqueness of the Mac. Apple has successfully dominated the market of Mac computers, which gives them great monopoly power of the market of Macs. Therefore the slope of the demand curve increases due to this loyalty of the customers.

    2. Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    Assuming that the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive apple much remain the firm that has something different from the other producers of computers. If they continue to have their uniqueness they will be able to maintain their profits. However because the market is monopolistically competitive it could happen that another firm will successfully differentiate their product from others and bring competition to apple. For apple to be able to maintain their profits in the long run they must continue to improve the technology of their product and always have the newest technology available for their customers, as well as continue to develop new unique models of an apple computer. They must come up with a revolutionary design for their customers to stick with apple.

    3. What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a Mac Book Wheel if it were real?

    Firms like Apple have successfully differentiated their products from other products of the same kind. The main reason is that their designs for the products are great and they have successfully advertised their products. Apple is always bringing new designs and always provides their customers with the newest technology, and that’s how they attract their customers. An example is Ipod, apple has almost completely dominated the market over MP3 players and we can see that just the way people talk about MP3 players, they call them Ipods. That is an example how a firm has successfully differentiated their products from other firms and get power over the market.

    I would not buy a MacBook Wheel and the reason is that the typing process is way to slow and I’d prefer to stick with keyboard. The look of the computer is very appealing and it most likely has the newest technology and the idea to make something so unique is very good to attract customers. However I feel that the design must be a faster and better way of doing something not making something (like typing) slower.

  52. Gunnhildur Ómon 13 Jan 2011 at 9:04 pm

    @ Trevor.echl.f09

    I like your example of Iphone of how firms have tried to differentiate their products form other is very good. They have very successfully made the Iphone different from other phone and included very attractive features in it and they are always improving the features and technology. This is a good example of how firms are successful in a monopolistically competitive market.

  53. tomoya_sekineon 16 Jan 2011 at 5:41 pm

    The slope of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation because there is really no alternative to the “Macbook Wheel” which would increase consumer demand for that particular product (and mainly because of the fact that the product is different from other existing laptops). Therefore, consumers are willing to buy this product even at a high price as the product would be price inelastic (since there are no substitutes).

    Apple would make supernormal profits for a particular amount of time until the time where other firms would come into the market and use similar idea as the Macbook wheel to make their own different product. If this happens, Apple would make normal profits due to the close substitutes for a significantly cheaper price.

    When we look at this topic from all points of view, a laptop is just a laptop, which only has several purposes. However companies have tried to integrate their laptops to make it stand out more to consumers. An example would be the Ipods invented by Apple. Over the years, Apple has been releasing new and different Ipods to increase profits and attract more customers (such as the change from Ipod classics, to Ipod Nano, to Ipod Video, to Ipod touch and so on). If the MacBook wheel was real, I would not buy the product as it is just simply another “new” product that they make every month. In other words, I have no brand loyalty towards Apple even though I own some of their products. Over time I lost interest to Apple making new things and trying to make more profit.

  54. tomoya_sekineon 16 Jan 2011 at 5:50 pm

    To: Gunnhildur Ómarsdóttir

    I feel the exact same way as to all of your responses for the questions, especially how you said that nowadays people would think of Ipods as Ipods and MP3 players as Ipods. I believe I could say this the same for "Apps" on Itunes as Apps is just a short term for 'Applications' but the first thing that comes to mind for everyone would be Apple's Apps. And if we think about it, applications were in the market or on different devices long before Apple invented the Ipod touch and Iphones.

  55. Ashinion 16 Jan 2011 at 8:58 pm

    Apple introduces newer technologies challenging the laptop industries. Also consumers are ready to buy apple laptops even at higher prices. There is inelastic demand because no other company offers a technology where there is no keyboard

    If apple becomes a monopoly then in the short run it will gain supernormal profits but in the long run because of the law of diminishing returns it will eventually fall in losses.

    Personally I wouldn’t buy a macbook wheel because it just seems inconvenient not to have a keyboard. There are laptop companies like Samsung who have made changes like waterproof keypads and apple which launched the thinnest laptops in the world. Also HP created the smart battery technology and ASUS has recently entered the market.

  56. Ozge_Elif_Ozeron 17 Jan 2011 at 12:02 am

    1-after successful product differentiation the demand curve of apple increases a lot because consumers find it different and unique so demand of apple increases. Since it is a unique product people are more willing to buy it even it is too expensive when we compare it with its compatitors.

    2-If we assume that, this market has a monopolistic structure, the apple would be the center and authority of the market. To stay like that in the long run, they should continue to improve their products and produce new and different things.

    3-The most attractive thing that apple is used to attract consumers was to add new apps to phones or laptop which are never added and they advertised those apps very wisely even most of the apps were nonsense. I would not buy a Wheel, because I dont think its newest features are necesarry.

  57. Ozge_Elif_Ozeron 17 Jan 2011 at 12:04 am

    @ Gunnhildur Ómarsdóttir,

    I agree with you about the desingners of apple because it is one of the reasons why apple is that popular.

  58. Christian Camarilloon 18 Jan 2011 at 2:48 am

    1. The demand shifts to the right because of the product differentiation. Since Apple is competing in a monopolistic competition, coming out with a different version of a lab top will definitely increase demand.

    2. Over time, Apples profit will go from supernormal to normal profit. In the short run, Apple will definitely make supernormal profit from the new product but if they want to keep that in the long run, Apple will have to keep coming up with new products that competitors will not have which will ensure Apple’s supernormal profits in the long run.

    3. In the past Apple came out with the iphone. It was such a big hit because of the touch screen and the fact that it was an ipod and a phone combined plus much more. Since then, Apples competitors started coming out with touchscreen phones and other devices. I would buy the Mac book wheel because soon other companies will start producing similar products and eventually everyone will convert from having a keyboard to a wheel.

  59. Christian Camarilloon 18 Jan 2011 at 2:50 am

    @ Ashini

    great comment. i also agree with you that it is an inelastic demand so the demand will certainly remain high

  60. Jainyon 18 Jan 2011 at 3:15 am

    Apple has been introducing a new product every year in the advancing laptop industries, it has gained reputation and trust amongst the consumers and therefore consumers are ready to pay high prices. Apple’s product differentiation is not just limited to its inner software advancements but also in its spare parts like the one in Macbook Wheel where there is no keyboard. There will be an inelastic demand for the laptop as the product differentiation will bring a change as No other laptop producing company has yet introduced the idea. If the market for laptops becomes monopolistically competitive then Apple might make economic profits over time as its product differentiation, advertising, developing brand loyalty, and “hype” will be encouraged. Also, if the product differentiation continues they might lead the technological industries by introducing various other ‘Apple Products’ in the long run. I would not want to buy a Macbook Wheel because i don’t find it appropriate to use a Portable device without a keyboard. In addition, other companies like Dell offer customer choice configurations, or Black berry laptops with its own systems and applications.

  61. william_overhauseron 18 Jan 2011 at 6:17 am

    1. The slope changes because Apple has built customer loyalty, meaning consumers will prefer Apple brand products. This preference means that even if Apple raises its prices, its loyal customers will still buy its products. Therefore a change in price will cause a proportionately smaller change in quantity demanded, a characteristic of inelastic demand. With the introduction of the MacBook Wheel, the demand for Apple's products has become more inelastic, so the slope reflects that change.

    2. Others will notice the supernormal profits Apple and its competitors are making, causing them to join the market as well. This will move the demand curve for all firms to the left due to the increased variety and and decreased market share. Therefore the average revenue curve (which is the same as the demand curve) will shift to the left and may even cause a loss if it falls below the average cost curve. This cause will hence cause some firms to shut-down and leave the market, moving the demand curve and average revenue curve back to the right due to less competition. This cycle is continuous and balances out so the average revenue curve is tangential to the average cost curve. This means firms are making normal profit in the long-run.

    In order to stay ahead of the rest of the market, firms must constantly innovate their product to make it higher quality than others, or increase advertising to bring in more customers.

    3. In the past Apple has differentiated its products by being the first to introduce things such as apps on smart phones or video screens on iPods. I would not buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real because it seems like a real hassle to work with.

  62. william_overhauseron 18 Jan 2011 at 6:20 am

    @ Gunnhildur Ómarsdóttir

    Nice idea about how we call them iPods. I had not thought about that, and it really shows how Apple has built up its reputation.

  63. Mehmet_Mert_Sumaon 18 Jan 2011 at 7:11 am

    1- The demand for the product increases because there is no close substitute to challenge Apple. The differentiated product Macbook wheel attracts the consumers by its new technology.

    2- Apples will earn supernormal profits in the short run. However, it won't make supernormal profits in the long run because there are no barriers to prevent the entry of new firms in monopolistically competitive markets. The other firms may start to produce the products which are similar to Macbook wheel. Continuing to design its differentiated products and having consumers who are loyal to the brand may help Apple to earn supernormal profits in the long run.

    3- Apple and its competitors try to have different operation systems, softwares and applications to differentiate their product in order to gain more power in the market i.e the power to charge high price. I would buy it because most of the time Apple's products have high quality.

  64. Mehmet_Mert_Sumaon 18 Jan 2011 at 7:15 am

    @Ashini I agree that the demand for some Apple products are inelastic. Some products of Apple with high prices might get sold easily. This is mainly due to the consumers who are loyal to the brand.

  65. Dilan_Guneson 18 Jan 2011 at 11:40 am

    1) The demand curve for Apple has increased because the new product is differentiated from the others in the computer market. New technology that used in the MacBook Wheel attracted the consumers and becuase it is unique for now and the first sample of computer without key-board it is taking more and more attention which is making the demand increase.

    2) The economic profits will increase during the times when the MacBook Wheel has just placed in the market. This time will take a short term, short-run because after sometime consumers get use to this product and also there can be some new computers created by the other firms in the market. To continue with a increasing profit, long-run, Apple should create new things after some certain times.

    3) For example markets for computers is a very suitable market for making,creating new products. With the help of technology they are differentiating their products like Apple did. No keyboard just a big buton, so creative and interesting. Actually I would buy it becuase it looks modern, different and the quality of Apple’s products are high which makes it more desirable.

  66. Dilan_Guneson 18 Jan 2011 at 11:47 am

    To: Mattea.echl.f09

    I agree with the all answers you gave to the questions and actually I really like that you have mentioned about the advertisements in the third question. I also think that advertisement are so beneficial for markets for introducing their new product to the consumers and also which increases selling.

  67. Julian_Cuervoon 18 Jan 2011 at 3:04 pm

    1.) The slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple because the differentiation caused an increase in the consumer demand. Consumers will be more attracted to buy from Apple because they prefer the brand over others and they will have loyalty to the company, so they would demand their products more even if they have to pay more.

    2.) What is likely to happen to apple’s economic profits over time is that they will return to normal profits. Other firms will join the market because they will be attracted to the supernormal profits that apple is making. This will cause apple to respond by creating more new products with new technological features that will attract more customers.

    3.) Firms like apple have differentiated their products through branding and advertising. They have built consumer loyalty with people who have purchased their products and they have repaid them buy continuing to make new compatible apple products and features, like apples’ itunes, that will attract more consumers to the apple brand. I would buy the Macbook wheel if it was real because apple has a reputation of coming out with new, fun devices and I already have an ipod so I would be inclined to buy the macbook wheel because I like my ipod touch so I will be confident that the wheelbook will be a success as well.

  68. Julian_Cuervoon 18 Jan 2011 at 3:08 pm

    @william_overhauser: I agree with your comment. I too think that " has built customer loyalty, meaning consumers will prefer Apple brand products. This preference means that even if Apple raises its prices, its loyal customers will still buy its products." I think that apple has been able to create such a successful reputation through their branding that when people are faced with choices over a certain product, they would be more inclined to purchase the apple brand because of their loyalty to apple and the reputation apple has for making successful products.

  69. gokce_gunduzon 18 Jan 2011 at 8:20 pm

    1)The demand curve changes after successful differentiation since Macbook whell has different technology it is more appealing to the consumers.

    2) at the first stage; when Macbook wheel just enter the markets the economic profits will increase. the other brands can produce the similiar computer so economic profits are going to be decreased, after sometime consumers get use to this product.to continue with a increasing profit, long-run, Apple should create new things after some certain times.

    3) the competitors in the technological industry has created differences between the products is in their design, hardware, battery life, and applications already installed in the computer such as in a Mac and applications available for installation. ? wouldn't buy since it would take more time to type, ? prefer usual keyboard.

  70. gokce_gunduzon 18 Jan 2011 at 8:27 pm

    @dilan_gunes

    you are right in your answers furthermore ? completely agree with you that quality of Apple's products are high.

  71. Talia_Greeneon 19 Jan 2011 at 3:00 am

    1. As Apple increases product differentiation, they increase the demand for their specific products and make people believe that their products are a necessity. This increases the inelasticity of the price, making the demand curve more steeply sloped.

    2. In the short run, Apple will make supernormal profits. This will, however, attract more firms to the market, increasing competition and shifting the demand curves for the products of each firm to the left. Because of this, Apple can make only normal profits in the long run.

    3. Apple differentiates its products through all the hype and advertising, such as with the way “iPod” has become almost synonymous with “mp3 player.” Blackberry has differentiated its cell phones by making them well known for long batter life.

  72. Talia_Greeneon 19 Jan 2011 at 3:02 am

    @gokce: I like how you brought up the installation options in your answer to the third question. The major operating system providers have a lot of options specific to them, so if you want that option than you are forced to buy their product — it's another way that companies differentiate their products.

  73. Bryan_DiLauraon 19 Jan 2011 at 5:21 am

    1. The slope of the demand curve increases after there is a successful product differentiation. This is due to the fact that people will demand the product more, because it has become more desirable due to advertising etc. This allows the firm to make supernormal profits in the short run.

    2. Apple's profits over time will be normal profits. This is because if they are making supernormal profits, it will attract other firms (or current firms to make a similar innovation) in turn decreasing demand (because of close substitutes), bringing their profits down to normal profits. If they want to maintain supernormal profits in the long run, they need to stay innovative. Always making their products the most desirable.

    3. Some ways that companies have differentiated their products from the other companies is through branding. For example, Apple has the signature bitten apple, Dell has the word "dell" with the tilted e surrounded by a circle, etc. This allows people to instantly recognize their products when people are using them. No, I would not buy a MacBook Wheel, if it were real. It is lacking extremely in features, and seems like it'd be hard to use. Also, there are many better alternatives out there.

  74. Bryan_DiLauraon 19 Jan 2011 at 5:24 am

    @Mehmet_Mert_Suma: For your question 3, I feel that the quality of Apple's products in the past should not automatically mean you'd be willing to buy anything that Apple would come out with. From the video, at least in my opinion, it seemed like it was barely functional. It is the consumer's job to make informed decisions about products.

  75. Asucan_Odcikinon 19 Jan 2011 at 8:20 pm

    1) As we see from the video Apple has a very inelastic demand portfolio. Apple creates even more inelastic demand by differentiation its Apple Mac. So that the slopes of the demand curves increase even if the price of the product more than the other laptops. Also the differences that the new MacBook Wheel has, attract consumers who are already addicted to Apple’s all products.

    2) I think, if we consider the market for laptop is monopolistically competitive then in the long run Apple’s supernormal profits may become only normal profits. Because in monopolistic competition there are new barriers to enter the market for the other firms which can compete with Apple. But as Apple can easily produce new things and differentiate its products which can appeal consumers, Apple may make supernormal profits in the long run by its clever strategies.

    3) I think market for computers is a very good area to differentiate products. For example Apple does not only differentiate its computers, it also improves its softwares and applications for their MacBooks to make it more appealing. By these ways Apple make more profits and make their costumers even more addicted to their products. I could buy it, as it has high quality and reliable place in the market for me.

  76. Asucan_Odcikinon 19 Jan 2011 at 8:24 pm

    @Ozge_Elif_Ozer I agree with most of your opinions Özge. I also think that if the market is monopolistic, Apple could be in the center of the market as it is almost leading the market about laptop sector.

  77. Behiye_Ilkay_Dasdemion 19 Jan 2011 at 9:57 pm

    1) With the help of power and reputation, which Apple has gained in the computer market, the consumers are willing to buy products of Apple. They are more into the products so that the demand for it increased with the success.

    2) If Apple keeps producing new and attractive products, the reputation and brand loyalty of it will increase. More profit may be a consequence of this situation but as it develops, the other computer companies will improve their products, as well. That is why, the profit, which Apple is going to make, will not the same as it did. If it wants to keep the profits, the advertising and more qualified products will make it less demanding.

    3) Basically, the companies differentiate the applications and the programs which the computers have. The programs and the applications become more functional and trouble-free to apply. Also, the other thing is to change the appearances of the computers. Day by day, the laptops began to be thinner and smaller, and to have catchy colors and designs. I would buy the MacBook because I think it is high qualified.

  78. Behiye_Ilkay_Dasdemion 19 Jan 2011 at 10:03 pm

    @Asucan_Odcikin I agree with your second answer that Apple has some clever ideas to make the product more appealing so that it can easily make profits.

  79. Kang_San_Keumon 20 Jan 2011 at 5:17 am

    1. The demand curve increases after the successful differentiation because the customers from Apple are highly loyal to any product they release thus making the curve inelastic. For instance, last year Apple released the iPad. They improved a lot of aspects from the ipod touch and thus it attracted more customers into this new device.

    2. Apple's economic profit in the short run could make a supernormal profit if the firm tries to advertise their product of or if more customers buy Apple products because of a change of heart. As the demand is inelastic, in the long run the firm should make a normal profit.

    3. Laptop computer companies would normally differentiate their products with different applications and programs installed on the laptops. The main way would be with OS differentiation but they could also entice customers with free iWorks or free Microsoft Office.

    In my case, I would not buy a MacBook Wheel because I do not share the love for Mac OS X. Besides that fact I would consider it.

  80. Kang_San_Keumon 20 Jan 2011 at 5:20 am

    @ Behiye_Ilkay_Dasdemir

    I agree with most of your points about the product differentiation of Apple but I have to disagree with you when you say that you would buy the MacBook because of its design. In my opinion, you should buy products based mostly on the performance of a machine.

  81. Jainyon 21 Jan 2011 at 11:37 am

    @ Ashini,

    A very good explanation and i agree with all your statements including your personal view. :D

  82. Francisco_Jose_Carilon 24 Jan 2011 at 5:26 am

    In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    This happens because of a successful advertising campaign. This makes people think that their laptops are useless compared to the new laptop, thus making them want to buy this new "innovative" product.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    Now the profits will become supernormal, because they will by able to charge a high price for this product because it has basically no competition. But there will be a time in which other companies copy/make a similar product, which will lower the demand curve.(we have seen this with the Ipad) If apple wants to keep its profits high, then it will have to make another product or try to improve its products to create a greater difference between them and the competitors.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    They try to differentiate their products in many ways. An example of this is the Ipad and the Kindle. Both can be used as e-readers but one is in color and more expensive and the other one is much more economic but has e ink which is easier on the eyes. NO, I will not buy a mac book wheel, it is a JOKE, made to be funny, by showing us a product that people are buying even though it is the worst product ever.

  83. Francisco_Jose_Carilon 24 Jan 2011 at 5:30 am

    Hello Kang San Keum.

    I dont think that the answer to your last question is well thought of. How would you consider buying a computer which "only takes about 45 minutes to write an email", among many other serious flaws? Also Mac OSX is not a type of computer, it is the software that runs the computer, and most likely the mac wheel will have it.

  84. Dogan_Can_Ozcanon 26 Jan 2011 at 9:54 am

    -In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    This is because Apple produces different products than other companies. And suddenly people want to buy, as a result of this demand curve increases.

    -Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    I think Apple's economic profits will fall. Because laptops will look like similar. If Apple wants to maintain its profits in the long-run they should differentiate their products, they should produce different products than the other companies.

    -What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Over the years companies develop their technologies to produce different products. Especially we can see these differences between their designs,hardwares and battery life. I would buy Macbook wheel if it was real.

  85. Dogan_Can_Ozcanon 26 Jan 2011 at 9:58 am

    @Kang_San_Keum

    I agree with your answers. Especially your opinions for the first question are really good.

  86. Bahar Erdo?duon 26 Jan 2011 at 10:14 am

    -In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    Apple makes different products and it increases their demand.Products which are different become more attractive and consumers want to buy more. Because of the increase in demand , demand is less elastic than before.When there is a decrease in elasticity it will have higher slope.

    – Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    In monopolistic competition, the only way for a company to increase their profits is to produce new and attractive products.

    – What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would you buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    (apple)Company usually makes new products by improving them the old products which are belong to the company. Companies also having a lot of advertisements.These make Apple’s products seems like they have higher value than Microsoft’s products.

  87. Bahar Erdo?duon 26 Jan 2011 at 10:16 am

    Do?an Can,

    I agree with your comments and my comments are basically talks about your opinions

    "Over the years companies develop their technologies to produce different products. Especially we can see these differences between their designs,hardwares and battery life. I would buy Macbook wheel if it was real."

    I am with you on that and I would buy Macbook wheel if it was real.

  88. Daniella Majlufon 27 Jan 2011 at 1:33 am

    1. The slopes of the demand curve increase because it becomes more inelastic due to product differentiation. People like to buy the newest and the best products and don’t mind if the cost is high or low, they buy it at whatever price. This is why demand increases in the Apple industry.

    2. If the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive then Apple’s economic profits, which were once supernormal, would become normal. So what Apple should do is to always maintain its differentiated products and care for people’s needs. They should gain loyalty from their customers, too. Apple should also make sure that they are always ahead from the rest of the laptop industries and that they have always the best, making sure that the other industries don’t have the potential or the money to do such different products.

    3. Apple and its competitors differentiate their products by making new and better versions of past models. They try to get the attention of consumers through advertising and by making their products in such a way that they catch the attention of many people. I would not buy the MacBook Wheel since it seems useless.

  89. Daniella Majlufon 27 Jan 2011 at 1:43 am

    @ Francisco_Jose_Carillo_Fernandez

    I totally agree with all your answers, especially number 1 which says that Apple catches people's attention through successful advertising.

  90. Ece_Erdemon 27 Jan 2011 at 9:42 am

    1)The macbook wheel is an innovation on Apple computers. Before this innovation, the Apple market was still successful and it was the price-maker on the market even though it wasn’t in monopolistic competition. The new developing technology increases the demand for the particular products. Also Apple is a very well-known brand and it has loyal consumers who can buy every newly product macbook. Moreover, the Apple advertisements and the attractiveness of the newly produced Apple products are really very effective on the consumers. Therefore it increases the demand.

    2)If we assume that the laptop market competition is monopolistic, then it means that different firms should try hard to differentiate their products with the new technology and so on. In this case, Apple has a great chance to make huge profits out of their products, because they are always the first ones who create high-tech products, the mackbook wheel is just an example. Over time, apple will continue to maximize its profits, if there won’t be any innovation on the other laptop producing markets. If Apple wants to maintain its profits in the long run, then it should play the game according to the rules. Apple should continue creating new and attractive product in terms of appearance, and should definitely pay a huge amount of money on advertising.

    3)For example, Apple is trying so hard to innovate its old products. It produced a macbook, I-pod touch and stuff like this. I have not seen any other company coming out of their box and saying that we have created a new product, or we have developed something, they only imitate what Apple does. If the macbook wheel were real, I don’t think that I would buy it because it would be too expensive for a person like me, and also it has some disadvantages too. For instance, it does not have a keyboard, and at first place it looks like it is an advantage and it is the main aim for that computer, but I don’t think it is easy to type in a computer like that. I heard that a person typed an e-mail at 45 minutes on macbook wheel, which is an extremely high amount of time and I don’t think that I have that much time and patience. Therefore, I believe I wouldn’t buy it because I think that it is no good for me.

  91. Ece_Erdemon 27 Jan 2011 at 9:45 am

    @Francisco_Jose_Carillo_Fernandez

    I agree with you Francisco. It is very important to have a great sense of advertising because it is effective on consumers. But I also believe that the macbook wheel is very appealing in terms of appearance, and it can be a factor to for the demand to be raised.

  92. Merve_Akpinaron 27 Jan 2011 at 11:17 am

    1)We know that Apple has a different style than the other computer producers have. Therefore the product of the Apple does not fit the other ones. It makes the consumers of that company buy every single product of Apple. With the developing technology, and the different style Apple is always price maker. Thus, demand for Apple always increases.

    2)If we assume that the laptop market competition is monopolistic, then it means that different firms should try hard to differentiate their products with the new technology and so on. In this case, Apple is already the winner. As I said before what makes Apple successful is the unique creation of that company. If Apple wants to make profit in the long-run, it can continue to create the queerest product very fast. I believe that the consumer of the Apple will always continue to buy those products. Therefore, Apple will be successful in the long- run too.

    3)As a person I would not prefer Apple. Because it is just coherent with its other product. And mackbook wheel has no keyboard so it is hard to use it. Also I believe that new innovation will be so expensive for me.

  93. Merve_Akpinaron 27 Jan 2011 at 11:32 am

    @Daniella Majluf

    I like your point and agree with you. You said people are tend to buy new products and they don't care about the price. Therefore they prefer Apple. Then you show Apple as a veblen good which is very logical.

  94. Muhammet_Murat_Sekbaon 27 Jan 2011 at 4:20 pm

    1. 1. In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    Apple company always present different types of product to the market and this feature makes them different than other companies. Moreover, consumers are attracted by diffirentiated products, so the slope of graph rise due to demand becoming inelastic. So, when a consumer gets an apple product apple becomes more stronger than other companies.

    2. Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    In monopolistically competitive , and in the long term supernormal profit will change into normal profit. In order to maintain its profit in the long run, apple should continue to produce differentiated products to continue to make supernormal profits and to make its place stable in the market.

    3. What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Other companies have differentiated their products generally by improving the old type products. For example; new iPod models. Furthermore, in order to introduce the products many companies pay too much money for advertising like with Mac and Pc commercials.

  95. Muhammet_Murat_Sekbaon 27 Jan 2011 at 4:27 pm

    @ Bahar Erdogdu

    I tottaly agreee with your response. "In monopolistic competition, the only way for a company to increase their profits is to produce new and attractive products." at this sentence you're totaly right. Because as we see from our da?ly l?fe, people always want to have different type products. So when new and attractive products are produced the profits that compines make will increase .

  96. mboadeon 27 Jan 2011 at 9:50 pm

    Discussion questions:

    In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    The shift to the to the right of the demand curve was a result of the introduction to the market of the new product. This change in the demand was cause by factors as advertisement, innovation and loyalty to the firm. This non-price competition factors make the demand curve of the Mac product go to the right.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    Assuming that the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive the economic profits of Apple will become normal profits because many companies will enter the market attracted by the supernormal profits. The excess of suppliers in the long run will produce the price of the product go down until the point which the profits are normal.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years by innovation and making the consumers loyal to their products. I will not buy the Macbook Wheel if it were real because the wheel will make me waste a lot of time as well the mouse.

  97. mboadeon 27 Jan 2011 at 9:58 pm

    Hi, Ece_Erdom I agree with your first answer I think that the key of sucess of Apple is innovation because their is no other company for the moment that offer the market the amount of different innovative technological products as this firm. In your third answer you say that many companies offer the public "imitations" of the products of Apple I also agree with you but at this point loyalty a factor of non-price competition enters to the situation and in many cases if the consumer can pay for it they will prefer Apple.

  98. Muhammet Emin Uyla?on 28 Jan 2011 at 9:01 am

    1.In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    When Apple differentiate its product, demand of it increase because people started interest with apple more so we can say that Apple was successful when they differentiate their products and produce new products. As in article mentioned; “Through differentiation, which means making its products unique and attractive to consumers, Apple attempts to increase market demand for its computers, while simultaneously making demand less elastic.” So Apple can make more profit by changing their price easier because they became more monopolistic and after the differentiation their demand curve became inelastic.

    2.Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    After a time Apple started make normal profit and do not have any more supernormal profit because when other firm see how demand is inelastic and profit is much they want to also participate those markets to share profit so Apple profit will become normal profit. If Apple wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run, Apple should continue to differentiate their products.

    3.What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    They are differentiating their old products buy using new technologies and their imaginary so they became more successful. Lastly, I would not buy a Macbook Wheel if it were real because I love to use keyboard.

  99. Muhammet Emin Uylason 28 Jan 2011 at 9:04 am

    @Muhammet_Murat_Sekban

    I agree with your comments about questions. Actually, you got the right point in second question because I think it is the best way for Apple to continue to diffentiate their products.

  100. Kansu Aydoganon 28 Jan 2011 at 9:32 pm

    1.) Demand for Apple has increased because of the reputation of Apple and as in computer, this brend has shown the quality of its products.

    2.)I think in this situation, the demand for Apple is not going to stay the same. The products are going to be so similar.

    3.) Honestly ? am also a fan of Apple, because ? think in this computer market, Apple is the only company that tries to invent new things and develop versions of series. Plus, Apple uses the most well qualified techniques and items when creating sth. So if it was real, ? would buy it ( but as it is going to be a very expensive product, ? would wait for prices to fall a bit, then ? would buy it :) )

  101. Juan_Manuel_Arguedason 02 Feb 2011 at 9:36 pm

    In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    This happens because people want to have the newest things in the world, and want to have the best ones as well. By saying the best ones, I mean that everything that is new, is supposedly better than things already created. This means that new computers would be bought just to have the "best".

    What will happen to Apples economic profits over time is that they will increase amazingly. This is because people will satrt changing to Apple and leaving other computers, just because Apple works better. What Apple must do is that they should innovate computers and products not very far from each other. This means that they should regularly innovate their models.

    Some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attemptes to differentiate their products over the years would be new systems, and much more "space" and memory, to do a lot of nw things in the computer, attempt to be the best for what the human needs. I would buy a MacBook Wheel because it is a very good machine and with a great quality as well.

  102. Juan_Manuel_Arguedason 02 Feb 2011 at 9:40 pm

    @mboade

    I agree with you when you say that the shift to the to the right of the demand curve was a result of the introduction to the market of the new product. This is because it is the reality, and it is the correct and most obvious answer.

  103. Suyeon Soon 16 Feb 2011 at 7:29 pm

    The apple demand curve increases because the success in the market made consumers willing to buy apple product and helped them to appeal their images to the consumers. These two factors corporate to increase demand curve.

    In monopolistic competition, apple would not be able to make supernormal profit in the future, since many companies would join the laptop market. In monopolistic competition, there is no barrier to join the market, and apple’s supernormal profit would attract other companies to join, apple would make normal profit in the future. If Apple wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run, it has to develop and upgrade new products so it can prove that its products are different and superior compare to other companies’ product.

    In the real ways, Apple attempts to differentiate their products by changing the design, upgrading, and advertising their product. In Japan, it is easy to see an advertisement for iPhone 5 and iPad, and big poster of the iPhone and iPad is always posted on the wall in front of ‘Softbank’ (Japanese Telecommunication Company), which grabs consumer’s attention and makes them to buy it. I don’t think I would buy MacBook Wheel because it sounds inconvenient for me. I am really bad at technology, so I even don’t like MacBook that much. But I would buy other Apple products, since I found it really convenient (iPod, iPhone, and such.)

  104. Suyeon Soon 16 Feb 2011 at 7:32 pm

    @Kansu Aydogan

    I agree with your answer for the third question. I also think that apple is the ONLY company that actually invents new products. And the design of their products are pretty cool!! :)

  105. Andres_Finol_Rodriguon 18 Feb 2011 at 6:04 am

    1. This happens because differentiation makes products unique and attractive. Also, this opens up a larger demand for apple computers. This also makes demand less elastic.

    2. Eventually under monopolistic competition, Apple will lose its supernatural profits as new firms get into the business. If Apple wants to keep making supernatural profits, it must keep differentiating its products as it has been doing of late.

    3. Usually, it is with different features or operating systems. Also, the display and speed of the computer and its processor come into play. I would not but a mac wheel as I type faster on a keyboard than on a trackpad unless proved otherwise.

  106. Andres_Finol_Rodriguon 18 Feb 2011 at 6:06 am

    @ Juan_Manuel_Arguedas_Rodriguez

    I agree with what you said except the fact that Apple profits will increase amazingly. A monopolistic competition market makes it VERY hard to have supernatural profits in the long run.

  107. Nesibe Zirzak?ranon 18 Mar 2011 at 9:04 am

    The demand increases because Apple differenciated its products and more people tend to buy it. Products are designed to appeal more of the needs of people.

    In monopolistic competition, the supernormal profits of Apple will attract new seller to to enter the market since there are low barriers of entry. Since markets are becoming more competitive, the demand is getting inelastic.

    Apple is a leading company in specilization of products. Most probably, I would not buy Mac because I am not used to its typing system in keyboard and also I am not used to the system of Mac and I find Windows more practical.

  108. alifsigridardottiron 16 Feb 2012 at 11:19 pm

    In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    The demand curve increases because consumers like product differentiation and are therefore willing to pay a higher price if that means diversity, rather than pay a lower price for homogenous products. Apple is successfully producing products that attract various consumers.
    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    Apple has to continue creating original and creative products i.e product differentiation, to continue making supernormal revenue. Otherwise Apple will lose their revenue to the other firms that enter the industry because they are attracted to the supernormal profits companies are making and there are no entry barriers.
    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    I would personally not buy a MacBook Wheel but it sounds like an interesting concept that could attract different consumers. Apple for example came out with the iPad which is basically a touch screen laptop. This was created a huge explosion and other companies started copying Apple, etc. These companies are constantly trying to outdue each other, and when they improve their products and release new generations they always try to expand something within the computer (hardware or memory) whilst trying to figure out a way to make the computer lighter and sleeker etc.

  109. sjowett2on 16 Feb 2012 at 11:46 pm

    1/ In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    As apple increases their brand loyalty, more people are buying apple laptops, just because they are from Apple! So therefore as they increase brand loyalty, a change in price will will not make a difference in the demand for the product, making the demand curve less elastic and increasing the slope of the demand curve.

    2/ Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    Apples economic profits in the short run will continue to rise as more and more customers will be wanting to buy apple laptops, however in the long run, there profits will stop increasing and eventually come to a halt as nobody can prevent new firms entering the market. In order to maintain profits in the long run, they need to use their monopolistic powers to prevent new firms from entering to market, and drive firms out of the market, they must maintain there brand loyalty, and continue to come up with new exciting products!

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Firms have try to differntiate themselves from other buy creating simple and good looking products, that are easy to use. I woudl't buy a Macbook wheel straight away, I would wait until reviews have come out, and see if the general public: a laptop without a keyboard does sound kind of weird!

  110. sjowett2on 17 Feb 2012 at 1:14 am

    For the question 1, I Believe is it because they have built brand loyalty, and therefore Apple consumers will continue to buy their products even if the prices have been raised a little. Therefore, the demand slope will become less elastic! I agree with the fact that a macbook without a keyboard sounds unusual, and it will take some convincing for me to buy it!

  111. axu2on 18 Feb 2012 at 10:55 pm

    In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    Brand loyalty is what Apple is aiming. The increase in demand curve because the costumers are welling to pay large amount of money for the brand name.
    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    This is caused by the temptation and royalty to the brand Apple from costumers. They want to have the *newest* product which everyone will know about. This would attract new firms to enter the market since there are little barriers of entry. As markets are more competitive, therefore the demand would be more inelastic.
    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    I personally wouldn’t buy a MacBook Wheel. Firstly, it is not as simple without the keyboard, the wheel would make typing much slower. Apple has tried to differentiate themselves from other companies to set their persona as leading technology brand therefore arose costumer’s royalty .

  112. axu2on 18 Feb 2012 at 10:57 pm

    for question 3, I do agree that apple's products are high quality and that it does look modern. Yet considering the practicability of this product, I would not buy this product.

  113. Arthi Nachiappanon 19 Feb 2012 at 1:48 am

    1)Apple have established themselves as a firm largely through non-price competition, namely innovation. Their new, quirky ideas appeal to consumers who know little about technology – this is enhanced by the fact that they are so user-friendly and focus heavily on the aesthetics of their products – further technological developments are also likely to draw in customers as they are often patented to Apple, meaning there are no substitutes in the market whatsoever.

  114. Arthi Nachiappanon 19 Feb 2012 at 1:48 am

    2)Based on the assumptions of monopolistic competition, Apple should face normal profits in the long run – to maintain its profits, it should strengthen its brand loyalty, so that Apple goods have more inelastic demand. If Apple wants to maintain its abnormal profits, however, it needs to continue with its innovations and product differentiation to maintain its consumers’ loyalty and widen its appeal to more consumers who will turn their loyalty to Apple, if they are successful at doing so.
    3)They often innovate with different styles for the body of their products, which seem to get progressively slimmer with Apple. They also seem to differentiate based on different features, the speed and design. I would not buy a MacBook Wheel as I am not a fan of gadgets and would rather stick to what I know – my brand loyalty is to HTC and not Apple unfortunately!

  115. lzhang2on 19 Feb 2012 at 8:52 pm

    1.In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    After product differentiation, Apple is able to increase its brand loyalty and the demand becomes more price inelastic. More price inelastic means that when the price increases, the quantity will not drop as much. This is because people love innovation and do not care about the price but the “freshness” of the product. The market of Apple hence will become more innovation-driven instead of price-driven. People are loyal to Apple, and price plays less effect on demand. This is why the slopes of the demand curve increases.
    2.Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    Economic profits will decrease because Apple does not have the privilege to maintain abnormal profits in a monopolistic competition. Because firms are free to enter and exit the industry. If Apple wants to maintain its profits in the long-run, it must continue with its product differentiation so no other firms can produce the same products, to maintain its abnormal profits in a long run. Also, it may want to grow bigger and develop a monopolistic power to prevent new firms from entering the industry to opt out competition. But non-price competition is the key.
    3. What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    They try to innovate their products in the way that no other producers in the industry can produce the technology, and they gain a patent. I would buy, a MacBook Wheel because it differentiates myself too!

  116. lzhang2on 19 Feb 2012 at 8:55 pm

    Great idea and suggestion to Apple! I would agree that Macbook will be hotter and more enticing if free microsoft is offered. I am surprised that you would not buy a MacBook. I would certainly get one and follow the trend! I think this is how Apple makes its product enticing with technology. Product differentiation is really important for a firm to maximize its profits.

  117. kedwardson 19 Feb 2012 at 10:17 pm

    In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    Lack of competition in a market is responsible for the sloping demand curve in a monopoly. Apple’s monopoly in the technology market causes the demand to shift. They have the loyal consumer base and power to raise prices however they want, no matter the product – and it’s this loyalty to the apple brand that controls the market demand.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time?

    In the long run, a monopolistically competitive firm makes zero economic profit. Because of brand loyalty, it can raise its prices without losing all of its customers. This means that an individual firm's demand curve is downward sloping – consumers in this instance are all about having the newest and best product, so whatever firm supplies that will be successful.

    What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    They must continue to hole the interest of consumers, which at this point shouldn’t be too difficult because Apple is successfully edging out the competition for many areas of the technology market. The brand name is prestigious, and desirable to many consumers and it has been that way for several years.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years?

    Constantly coming out with the newest, best, and better designs for technology has definitely given firms an edge and popularity for the past few years. One concrete example I have noticed is the color alternatives. Different versions of different gadgets, even between brands are offered in one simple factor of different colors and that is appealing to many consumers!

    Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    No way. I know a joke when I see one! My consumer common sense would not be outweighed by a popular trend, which hypothetically would have probably seen an endless string of complaints and poor reviews within the first week of release.

  118. kedwardson 19 Feb 2012 at 10:27 pm

    I agree with your point about the attraction of consumers to the "newest" effect. Today's world is all about having the newest and best of everything. The video featured a consumer who was pleased with the completely unrealistic product because it added the text, "Sent from my Macbook Wheel" to the end of emails!!

  119. bhejaichon2on 19 Feb 2012 at 10:38 pm

    1. In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    When Apple products continue to differentiate from other options in the market, they create a unique brand scarcity. To enjoy the features they can only offer, you must pay whatever price the firm decides. Demand, driven by the idea of popularity, superiority, and brand trust increases as price becomes more inelastic.

    2. Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    Apple will benefit from short term abnormal increases to profit as they are selling new, distinct products. However, in the long run I believe they will also find themselves in the decreasing profits on a whole. While I do think they will have upswings during new product launches, I do not think they will break the system which forecasts decreasing long term profits.

    3. What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    I think if Apple’s wheel was as good as they said it would be, I would buy one to try it out. I own a MacBook, so I do trust in Apple’s product. I think some of the big ways companies like Apple, Google, and Microsoft have done are mobile devices, television applications, and software and hardware features that focus on a specific line of functions.

  120. spoulos2on 20 Feb 2012 at 4:56 am

    1.In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    This happends due to the fact that after the Macbook Wheel was published, all Apple customers want this luxury and expensive product – as it is popular and everyone seems to want it. Therefore this good is an inelastic good – we can see this on the graph as the demand curve is slowly creeping steeper and steeper.

    2.Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    In the short-run, Apple will make abnormal profits seeing as everyone will want their new product – However in the long-run, they will lose their profits if they do not create a newer version of the product – as it will become out dated and old. People want new products they want a good that will make them feel good about using it.

    3.What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Over the years Apple has tried to differentiate its products by making it really slim and small so that it is convenient to the consumer. However, even though this product sounds wonderful and amazing, I would not buy it simply because I am a PC man. I find laptops annoying and I rather use a mouse. However that is just myself and its really personal.

  121. spoulos2on 20 Feb 2012 at 4:58 am

    Good post! I really agree with you. I think as long as Apple continue to produce new products with new ideas and differentiate their products they will continue to make abnormal profits as all their consumers want to be different and want to be the popular person who owns an expensive good. Apple needs to be the main competitor for it to sustain its abnormal profits.

  122. Simona Cajkaon 20 Feb 2012 at 11:37 am

    •In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    Through product differentiation, consumers are enticed by this new, luxury product are want to purchase it, no matter what the price is because they are loyal to the brand, apple. This makes the demand for the computers inelastic and therefore increases the slope for the demand.

    •Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    Where apple stands at the moment, at the short-run they will be making abnormal profit. However in the long run they will notice a decrease in profits because the product will become outdated, or something else, more innovative will take its place. They will either have to product differentiate further and come up with a new product, or upgrade the macbook wheel making it even more amazing.

    •What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Companies such as apple has focused on making slim, shiny and ecstatically pleasing products. Their computers are innovatively designed and simple to use. If the macbook wheel was real I would most likely not buy it because I prefer a keyboard, as it is much simpler to use, and also in the video they said the man took 45 minutes to write an email using the wheel, and that is not impressive to me, sounds like a lot of work

  123. Simona Cajkaon 20 Feb 2012 at 11:42 am

    Hey spoulos2, very good answers. I agree with all your points. I like your view on the last question. It's good that you stand your ground for being a PC man, even thought the world seems to be swirled away with apple products. I myself am a apple user, and cannot imagine going back to using a PC. But I would also not buy the macbook wheel because it just looks ridiculous and very impractical to use.

  124. Tanya Deolon 20 Feb 2012 at 4:53 pm

    In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    The demand because more inelastic because Apple developed its product, the MacBook Wheel which lead to product differentiation. Apple had a great degree of product differentiation that there are less close substitutes available in the market, this increases their monopoly power. This also creates brand loyalty and convinces customers that the product is worth purchasing.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    For a period of time after the launch of this new product, meaning in the short run, Apple will earn supernormal profits, but over time, in the long run, these will turn to normal profits. This will happen because there are low barriers to entry for the market, more companies will be able to make similar or maybe even better products that the MacBook Wheel. In order to maintain its profits, Apple will need to continue innovating its products but also gain consumer loyalty by advertising and branding its products.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    Companies can differentiate their products through the use of physical difference, differences in quality, and maybe even in terms of service, some might offer specific services to make their products more attractive.

  125. Tanya Deolon 20 Feb 2012 at 5:05 pm

    Hey sjowett2! Great post, I loved all your ideas, and thought they were very well explained. Referring to your first answer, I also agree that brand loyalty plays a major role in changing the slope of the demand curve. Did you notice that the demand was becoming more inelastic, like that on of a monopoly, do you think that this would mean that through this product differentiation, the firm is actually also gaining more monopoly power?

  126. Monique Ton 20 Feb 2012 at 5:38 pm

    1.In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    The slope of the demand curve increases because the demand curve is becoming more inelastic. This results because as Apple differentiates its products, it means its products are becoming less similar to the products of other firms, which means that there are fewer substitutes for Apple’s products. When there are less substitutes for a product, the demand becomes more inelastic, which is why the slope of the demand curve is increasing.

    2.Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    If Apple was in a market composed of monopolistically competitive firms, it would have normal economic profits in the long run: it would not be able to make supernormal profits. In order to maintain its profits in the long-run, Apple must continue to distinguish its products, and if it can make its products original enough, it will somewhat gain monopoly power over those products, and so it would be able to continue to earn supernormal profits.

    3.What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    First of all, I would definitely not buy a MacBook Wheel if it was real, due to the fact that it seems extremely inconvenient. In order to simply type this blog comment it would probably take me over an hour, if you saw how complicated it was on the video to type a simple sentence. The idea may seem fresh and original at first, but if you are creating a new product just for the sake of creating a new product and it doesn’t actually improve any features of the old product, then it is not effective and there is no point in buying it.
    Over the years, however, many companies have attempted ways to differentiate their properties. One successful example, in my opinion, is used by Dell Computers (a competitor of Apple): they allow consumers to customise their products, by adding different colours or patters to their laptops, rather than just the standard black laptop. I personally found that for the same price, I could purchase a laptop that was more personalised, with the programs and design I wanted, and so this was a successful attempt at differentiating their products from the many competitors they faced.

  127. Monique Ton 20 Feb 2012 at 5:47 pm

    Hi Tanya, I like your explanations, they are very clear. I agree with what you stated about Apple's need to continue innovating its products and gain consumer loyalty to maintain its profits. It is really important for Apple to stay on top, especially because most of its sales are the result of people purchasing due to the fact that they like the brand. Without their extreme brand loyalty, I think Apple would lose a lot of its success. Especially if it came out with a product as ridiculous as the MacBook wheel – it seems like that would be an extremely inconvenient way to type anything, and would probably frustrate many of its loyal customers!

  128. bhejaichon2on 20 Feb 2012 at 8:53 pm

    Hey Tanya,
    I agreed with all of your answer in regards to the questions. I believe that Apple company in imperfectly competitive markets differentiate their products in order to increase their market power and their price-making power. With their newly innovation continuously almost every year helped them to be able to sell their products and make their products very stand out from other competitors. By being the brand that consumers are very well known throughout the industry put them into the top choice whenever consumer needed to purchase the product. Yet, with their new coming out with a product as the .Macbook Wheel, will have a huge affect on other competitors very well. Good job! Great Work.:)

  129. lgade2on 21 Feb 2012 at 11:07 am

    Hey Monique,
    I enjoyed reading your response to the article. You mentioned a few interesting points in your response to the first and second questions. I also enjoyed reading your personal experience for the last question; and what you are looking for in product differentiation.
    Thanks

  130. lgade2on 21 Feb 2012 at 11:20 am

    After Apple product differentiation through the Macbook Wheel, the slope of the demand curve increases; becoming more inelastic. This is due to the fact that through the product differentiation, the producer (Apple) may have increased their brand-loyalty among consumers; successfully providing consumers with a product that is superior to that of their competitors. This results in a situation in which consumers may continue to purchase Apple products, even at a slightly higher cost; which results in the more inelastic demand curve for the product.

    Assuming that the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive; the fact that Apple is receiving short-run abnormal profits will draw more firms into the industry. In the long-run, this will result in normal profits for all the firms in the industry. However, Apple can continue to make abnormal profits in the long-run through constantly adding their products, changing the design, appeal, etc, in order to differentiate it from the products' of their competitors and increase the consumer loyalty for their brand.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    Apple has differentiated its product in numerous ways throughout the years; providing consumers with products that are 'sleeker', faster, lighter and (in general) more 'attractive' than the products of their competitors. However, other firms also differentiate their products. This is evident in HP or Dell computers; in which consumers can customize the designs of their purchases.
    I wouldn't buy a Macbook Wheel if it were a real product. It is a product that seems very inefficient; and the product differentiation has gone to such an extent where it compromises the effectiveness of the product.

  131. Jackson Truexon 21 Feb 2012 at 9:34 pm

    1.)In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    The slope of the demand curve increases due to the fact that the demand curve is becoming more and more inelastic. This occurs due to the fact that Apple differentiates its products. Their products are becoming less and less like the products that are being manufactured by other firms. This means that there are fewer substitutes for Apple’s products. When there are no substitutes for a product, the demand inelastic. This is why the demand curve increases.
    2.)Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    If the market for laptops became monopolistically competitive, Apple would develop normal economic profits in the long run. This means that the company would no longer make supernormal profits. If Apple wanted to maintain supernormal profits in the long run, it would have to continue to distinguish its products. This way there would be no substitute for Apple products and they would develop a monopoly power over other firms and it would maintain supernormal profits.
    3.)What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    Many firms have used different strategies in order to differentiate their products. I think the only important strategy that needs to be employed is the fact that you need to produce something different. An ice cream shop would want to put out a new flavor that is only available at their shop. This would mean that there were no substitutions for this flavor. I would most defiantly not buy a MacBook Wheel. It seems new, innovative and creative but at the same time very inconvenient. I do not think it would be practical for everyday use. I feel like it would be very successful regardless due to the fact that Apple has such a large group of followers that support their products. They have never really failed with a single product.

  132. Jackson Truexon 21 Feb 2012 at 9:36 pm

    Your response was very clear and to the point. I like your answer to the last question. I never thought about the fact that firms can differentiate their products with their respective logo. I think that it is important that companies differentiate themselves in all aspects.

  133. Brian Greggson 21 Feb 2012 at 10:51 pm

    In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    The slopes of the demand curves increase because Apple, by creating a revolutionary product, eliminates the presence of competition, and therefore the demand becomes more inelastic.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    Apples short-run supernormal profits will be normalized soon after the competitors catch up. Apple must continue to release revolutionary products so that they differentiate themselves from the competition.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Apple continuously ensures that their products are more advanced than their previous lines, and also the similar products made by their competitors. This way each of their products is differentiated and receives a lot of attention in the media.
    Personally I would not buy a MacBook Wheel as I prefer the convenience of a keyboard, but I can understand how others would be drawn to it.

  134. Brian Greggson 21 Feb 2012 at 10:54 pm

    I agree with what you said in part 3 about the products being almost addictive. Apple does a good job making their products fashionable, which helps with their demand.

  135. klake2on 22 Feb 2012 at 5:04 am

    1 It happens because of the differentiations that make the product luxurious and more unique than over brand. Also because of the brand name, people will rely more on Apple than other brand product. These facts will make the demand for Apple increase.

    2. Assuming the market for laptop is monopolistic competitive, Apple will make normal profit as many companies will enter the market. In the long run the price of the product will go down until normal profit but if Apple wants to maintain its actual profit they should continue to diverse the variety of their products.

    3. Apples computer does not only change their design but it also improved its software or the quality of the computer. Therefore every new version of Apple computers is a better version of the previous one. Consumers will be interesting in those new qualities. But I guess if i didn’t already have a Mac I would of bought it. However most of the people just need a simple computer and don’t need all of the software that Apple can provide. So I guess if I am happy with mine I would not buy the new version. Also some people feel like they need to have the new version or every new gadget that a Mac can provide, they are kind of addicted to the product and will buy this new version if it exist.

  136. Sebastian VWon 26 Feb 2012 at 3:56 pm

    In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    Since Apple differentiates its products from other products in the market, is there a smaller group of substitutes for Apple laptops. Therefore, the demand becomes more inelastic, giving the curve an increase of its slope.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    If the market is monopolistically competitive, this means that they will make normal economic profits. Though Apple wants to make abnormal profits, so they will have to differentiate their products from the products in the market to maintain their profits.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    A few days ago, I saw this laptop: http://www.engadget.com/2012/02/22/razer-blade-re
    It is so different that all the other laptops. It has a 4 inch touchpad with LCD screen, in stead of the normal mousepad. Also it has several buttons to be customized to the user's preference. So if you're a gaming person, you put your favourite 10 games in those buttons. But if you're more a websurfing person, you can put your ten favourite websites in the buttons. They manufacturers have differentiated their laptop from all the ordinary laptops.
    If the MacBook Wheel were real, I would absolutely NOT buy it. The way you should type with it is the most horrible system I have ever seen. I type 120 characters per minute, with that I would type maybe 10 per minute. It slows the typing down. Also, if I would have the choice between a normal MacBook and a MacBook Wheel, I'd chose the regular one, because it has a keyboard, and thus I could work better with it.

  137. nvirani2on 27 Feb 2012 at 12:23 am

    1. The production cost increases and therefore the price increases. There is another product that apple has to sell and therefore they will be increasing the price they are paying in order to create it.

    2. Over time the economic profit will decrease; however, if they continue to produce new products, their profit will continue to be abnormal.

    3. Apple has a unique, sleek and modern look to their computers. This draws the consumers in. They have many different products that cater to different needs and age groups. They also had innovative technology. They make sure all their customers are happy with the products they are buying so they don’t sell them the wrong item. This makes the customers want to come back and purchase more products.

  138. nvirani2on 27 Feb 2012 at 12:28 am

    I agree with the fact that Apple creates new products that are ahead of other brands. For example, they created the iPad before any other brand did. We all know that the other brands simply copied them and are possible selling their versions of the Ipad for a lower price.
    I am also not a fan of not having a keyboard; however, i also think others could be drawn to it. (Ironically enough i have an iphone)
    Thanks!

  139. Nadiya Son 14 Mar 2012 at 1:13 am

    1.In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    The slopes of the demand curves increase after successful product differentiation, because the curve is becoming more inelastic. With each new product, Apple consumers become more and more loyal to Apple. As one of the consumers said in the article “I would buy almost anything created by Apple”, this just shows what an amazing reputation Apple has built up for themselves. As the demand curve becomes more inelastic, consumers will buy the products even at a very high price, the wheel’s price was over 2, 600! But consumers don’t seem to mind.

  140. Nadiya Son 14 Mar 2012 at 1:18 am

    2.Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    If Apple were in a monopolistically competitive market, Apple would not be able to make super-normal profits. Thus Apple would have to continue being innovative, and would have to further differentiate themselves from other firms in order to stay on top and to achieve the supernormal profits it strives for.

    3.What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    Apple has done several things in the past to achieve differentiation. For example, they came out with the Macbook Air, the lightest and the thinnest laptop ever created. This made them standout. Apple computers are extremely resilient to viruses…a great bonus!
    I would definitely NOT buy a Macbook Wheel if it existed….to me, it looks like a huge iPod….why do I need such a big wheel? Sure its innovative….but its TOO simple…and it looks very inconvenient…how long would it take me to type my assignments? Forever.

  141. Nadiya Son 14 Mar 2012 at 1:23 am

    Hey :)
    While I agree that the Macbook wheel would be inconvienient and I would not buy it. I don't think its necesary to be against Apple products because they are Apple products. I personally have a Toshiba and I am happy with it….but if I had a need for a better laptop, I would go for Apple, because they do have good quality products….while it is important to watch out for products such as the Wheel, I still think it is important to apreciate, the good products they have come up with.

  142. Debbie Pon 14 Mar 2012 at 10:36 pm

    1.In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    This happens because knowing that Apple’s new laptop- the MacBook Wheel differentiates from other laptops, consumers will buy thinking it is worth their money. Also, as the product itself is not compared to be a substitute for other laptops, it becomes a monopoly market. The MacBook Wheel itself will become inelastic and therefore the slope of the demand curve graphs will increase like the second graph above.

    2.Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, most of the product that each firm produce will be similar to one another; in other words, very elastic and easily to substituted. So to maintain its profits in the long run, Apple should continue what they are best at: to create products that differentiates from other firms. Apple should maintain their supernormal profits by creating new desirable products- such as the iPhone and the iPads, so that the consumers will continue buying since their brand loyalty was already built in.

    3.What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    Personally, I am an Apple fan. I liked the idea of touch screen/ big screen and many other shiny products that Apple created over the years. However, I was not in favour of the idea of not being able to type. Therefore, I would not want to purchase this MacBook Wheel. Moreover, just like the news reporter said in the news, that it took the man 45 minutes to type an email to his friend using the MacBook Wheel which proves that it is unpractical. Even though this product is innovative and meant to be simple, I still think it is too simple.

  143. Debbie Pon 14 Mar 2012 at 10:41 pm

    Hello,

    I totally agree with your perspective on that "people love innovation and do not care about the price but the “freshness” of the product," which I forgot to mention in my post. It is very true that most of the time people do not care about the price of the product when it comes to electrical appliances. Therefore people buy it due to not only that but also brand loyalty. In the end the firm gains and develops into a monopolistic power over the market.

  144. Simon Franzon 15 Mar 2012 at 12:57 pm

    1) In the demand curves of Apple which we saw in the above post, there is a clearly indicated increase of the demand curve's slope due to a clear product differentiation which was initiated by apple's developers. This is a likely thing to occur because apple has a very loyal customer base who always wants a different product than the mainstream. These customers will pay for the differentiation which actually also is due to a higher quality. With a higher quality approach customers are happy to pay more because they think it is worth the extra money spent. This actually brings a big advantage since apply products therefore have no direct competitors causing no substitutes to being offered on the market. Therefore the apple electronic product market becomes monopolistic causing the products to become inelastic. This effect is shown in the sec on demand curve where the slope of the curve will increase.

    2) In my opinion the profits will decrease since other laptop makers will catch up quickly so that apple has to create new advantages with their products in order to maintain the monopolistic market.

    3) Companies which always tried to be different mostly made a start with high quality materials and components which are more expensive to use and sell in the first place but since customers are happy to pay the increase of quality and uniqueness it pays out at the end causing long-run profits to be maintained.

  145. Mirren Mecathumon 28 Mar 2012 at 5:15 am

    Hi Simon,
    Your answers are good responses. In question 3 you mentioned in my opinion how Apple runs. However, in other computer companies with profit margins that aren’t as high, they might go for lower quality materials. This is why they aren’t up to Apple’s standard, don’t you think so?

  146. BTMon 20 Oct 2012 at 11:12 pm

    That video is a troll. Apple are introducing no such thing

  147. Sasha_Son 14 Feb 2013 at 12:53 pm

    1. In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    Product differentiation is the change in a product that is not reflected, necessarily, in price. It is usually in an aesthetic facet, such as color, size, brand name, quality of the materials/service, etc. The MacBook wheel is a humorous parody of some of the innovative product differentiations that Apple has made, primarily with the click wheel of their seminal MP3 player, the iPod. By differentiating their product through design aesthetics, they are able to dictate the price (making them ridiculously high), and gain a degree of uniqueness that grants them limited inelasticity. This inelasticity increases their slope for their demand curve, which, in turn, makes it steeper than it previously was.

    2. Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    Apple’s economic profits will eventually end up becoming normal profits. As firms are very much enamored with the idea of entering a market that has great potential for economic profit, especially in a highly profitable industry like the computer industry, it is theoretically inevitable that competitors will creep their way into the market. This will create competition to the point where there are many competitors attempting to win on the economic profits that are up for grabs. Hence, to combat this, Apple must use its product differentiation to stay a few steps ahead of its competitors, as it will make their products that much more inelastic. By keeping their products inelastic, the customer base that they have established will not find any sort of alternative that is quite up to the standards that they have set. Hence, they will continue to earn their economic profits.

    3. What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    Apple essentially revolutionized the MP3 market with their iPod, which actually did innovate the usage of the click-wheel in order to get to songs quicker and for ease of usage. This differentiation was something that could not be replicated by other competitors, and set Apple as the standard for that market. Apple did the same with the phone market by introducing the iPhone, which was unlike anything anyone had ever seen. It took away something that was commonly associated with phones (the keypad) and simply replaced it with the screen, a part that no one had previously even thought of as an interactive part of the experience of using their phone. With the inclusion of the app store as an additional product differentiation, it extended the lifespan of the iPhone for years. Still, as the landscape of the industry changed, Apple had to keep innovating, improving upon what they already had, while attempting to introduce new elements like the camera on the back and forward on the iPhone 3GS. However, Samsung and other companies are catching or have caught up, creating somewhat of an oligopoly. Apple is struggling to maintain its spot at the top of its industry, and perhaps, they are returning to normal profits. On the topic of the MacBook Wheel, I would not really buy it with the amount of money I get, as it would be somewhat of a waste. However, if I had such an amount at my disposal, I would most definitely buy one out of sheer amusement. Who knows? Perhaps it would revolutionize the computer industry.

    Simon, your responses are good, but I have to agree with Mirren. Apple spares no expense to use some of the finest materials to make their products (at least, to my knowledge). Wouldn’t you say that if companies were able to make the same quality with cheaper materials, Apple would be in a very precarious position? Perhaps they would conform to the usage of such materials in order to keep up.

  148. Yada Pruksachatkunon 21 Feb 2013 at 4:42 am

    In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    This happens because people see the value and the uniqueness of Apple´s innovative product, and feel that it is much better than the other similar products in the industry because of that innovation. People always want the ¨coolest¨product in the industry in order to show their high status, and if Apple successfully differentiates itself as a status indicator, then people, rich or poor, who want to be seen as rich will flock to Apple. This will cause the demand for its products to rise. This happened with the iPad, wehre Apple merely took the iPhone, and created a larger version of it. It was so innovative that it started its own industry, and before long, iPads are everywhere on the streets!

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    Apple´s economic profits will lessen to normal profits over time, as its abnormal profits will attract new firms, which will steal the competition and lower Apple´s demand curve. In the end, all firms will be making normal profits. In order to keep their power and their abnormal profits, they must create barriers of entry (endorsing more on advertising in order to overshadow potential new firms, start price wars, etc.). It could also keep creating new revolutionary industries, such as it has done with the iPod and the tablet industries (with their iPads). However, those barriers will not last. Also, Apple must keep trying to differentiate themselves from other firms in order to maintain brand loyalty.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Each company within the technology sector really tries to differentiate itself from each other, especially the big oligopolic firms (Microsoft, Sony, etc). Some companies rely on the ¨Basic and simple¨ brand image. Trends repeat every few decades, in a constant cycle of ¨trendy¨sleek items such as Apple´s constantly updated products to more durable, ¨worth for your buck¨products from well established, older companies like Microsoft. Those are the two main separations in differentiation in the technology sector. There are many other companies who try to aim for Apple´s ¨sleek¨look, but another strategy Apple uses is to be more extreme than its competition and to always be consumer’orientated. Consumers will buy products from companies that give good customer service, and therefore, by servicing consumers in another way (i.e. online shopping, free tickets funded by the company to a concert, etc.), firms can differentiate themselves.

    According to the satirical advertisement/Apple movie feature, I would definitely not buy the Macbook Wheel. However, Apple would definitely market it a different way than how The Onion has portrayed it to be. Marketing is everything. Apple would definitely not mention its 19 minute charge power capacity, or that it takes 45 minutes just to type an email. I think there’s a point where a brand goes too far with its image, and this is the point for Apple and its simplicity.

    #Sasha_S

    Very detailed and thought-provoking responses!
    In your response to the last question, you said that you would buy the Macbook Wheel if you had the money to. With all due respect, why is that? Wouldn’t your money be more wisely put into a bank, to foster into even more money, and then spent on a holiday in the Bahamas or in a charity? And also on the point of it revolutionizing an industry, wouldn’t it be better to wait for that to happen, and then buy the first model of that revolutionary industry, instead of putting money into a thing that takes 45 minutes to write an email.

    I’m just curious about your perspective. I’m really open to anything :)

  149. kkozlovskison 21 Feb 2013 at 10:14 pm

    The demand curve gets steeper , because the PED for apple products get more and more inelastic. This is because most apple clients are willing to pay anyhting to get a apple product in their hands. We can see it whenever a new Iphone is released, people sometimes pay triple the price, just to be the first in line. It’s madness, I don’t understand how can people want to spend so much money on almost nothing. The demand curve gets more inelastic, because even if you raise the price the quantity sold wouldn’t change alot.
    As we know the profit for apple now is supernormal, and because every firm outside the market can see it, there’s a possibility that some firms will enter the market and have some demand for their products, in this way aple could loose it’s demand, and in long-term the profit level would decrease to normal-profit. The only thing that apple can do to stay at this possition is to stabilize the demand or probably increase it, they can do it by introducing new IT solutions like a new Iphone or Ipad, so in short, for apple to be able to recieve the demand they need to creative, and think outside the box.
    One of the first ways laptop producers started thinking outside the box was when everybody released tabets, if we would look at the demand of the companies which started selling tablets at any given period, at this period the demand would really increase. One of the new trends is all-in-one computers, it’s basiccly an iMac, and now there’s a boom for them, I would say that those are the new Ipad for homes. I think that most of the companies are thinking outside the box, butnow there’s this problem that too many are thinking outside the box, and now the box is so huge that it’s really hard to find the edge of the box, after which the demand would inrease for this product. And ,no, I wouldn’t buy an macbook wheel, it’s the stupidest thing I have ever seen, what’s wrong with keyboard, if you don’t like keyboard buy a tablet computer, I find this thing not really made for many of us.

  150. kkozlovskison 21 Feb 2013 at 10:23 pm

    # Yada Pruksachatkun
    I relly liked your answers to all of the questions, because you made them so realistic, you made them really yours, they were really like you know what you are talking about. That’s the most impreassive thing, I think, of your commentary
    But do you really think that this macbook wheel could accually even make to the realease onto the market, I don’t think so, becasue, firstly, it’s nothing really inovating, because they are not the first to do something like that, secondly, it shows that Applr is trying anythink just to be at te top, and for some this product would seem only as a product, with which apple is showing that they are not creative.

  151. MeganKon 22 Feb 2013 at 12:53 am

    In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    This is because of the inelastic PED of Apple’s products: consumers are willing to spend so much more money and so much of their time just to get their hands on an Apple product. Those who see and “experience” Apple’s product differentiation are willing to continuously spend more and more money on the extra products, because they believe that they’ll be useful in the long run, where as the new releases of products normally don’t have much more development than the last, just a different name and a different look.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    Over time and with the duration of the market, the “abnormal” profits that Apple is making with their product differentiation will decrease over time, with the entry of new firms into the market. This will in turn lower Apple’s demand curve. This could only be stopped if Apple and their competitors (already within the market), created barriers of entry to halt the introduction of new firms and new products into their “domain”. The one home that Apple can use as their economy of scale, is the connection that consumers have with the brand of Apple, thanks to their incredible marketing and branding departments. These teams would need to continue to work on the cutting edge of the market to continue the increased-profits in the long-run, a scenario that is hard to predict in the future.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    I think that no matter what, the effect of marketing is what defines the product/firm and it’s effectiveness on the population. With a remarkable and unforgettable marketing plan, a firm is able to make a dent on a population so strong that they become almost a pop culture reference. This sort of recognition is what all firms should strive for, and something that Apple and Google have managed to attain. Their branding and their logos/products are recognizable in all corners of the globe, adn their companies have reach all across the globe. This power and this control gives them the chance to create a large gap between “normal” (competitors) products and their own, making their’s seem much different, with its own niche. This differenciation allows Apple to attract a market unlike any other, since there are no products that truely match the niche that they build for themselves.
    Honestly, I’d probably buy a MacBook Wheel. I will admit that I am a slave to the Apple marketing scheme, and I have become hooked in!

    @kkozlovskis

    Why do you think this product is stupid? All that human beings have done in their development with technology is try to find new areas of growth that make our lives quicker and easier, so we do not have to think so much. This would just follow along with that trend, and I believe so many people would buy it. Look at all the stuff that was thrown at the iPad for it’s name and the fact it was just “a larger iPhone”, but now it almost has a bigger market than the iPhone itself! I wouldn’t blow off the power of Apple, not at all.

  152. xhuanfon 22 Feb 2013 at 1:16 am

    In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    After Apple launch the Mac Book Wheel, which is innovative and differentiated from other laptops in the market, brand loyalty is created. The new product made consumers think that Mac Book Wheel is better and more attractive than other laptops, therefore consumers are able to accept higher price of this laptop. Even if it’s expensive, lots of people will still buy it. That means the percentage of decrease of demand is smaller than percentage of increase of price. And that means the product is having a more inelastic demand. The lower the elasticity of demand is, the bigger the slope of demand curve is. Therefore, after Apple launched the new product, the slope of demand curve increases.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistic competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    In a monopolistic competitive market, Apple’s economic profit is likely to decrease to 0 in the long run. That is because more producers will be attracted by the high economic in laptop industry and start to produce laptop. These new companies will take business away from Apple, shifting the demand curve of Apple downward. As the demand curve shifts downward the price of Apple products will drop and Apple’s economic profit will decrease. This process will continue until Apple is making 0 economic profit – normal profit. No more producers will intent to entry the industry, and the price will remain at the current level. Apple now reached the long run equilibrium and will get normal profit.
    Apple must continue to differentiate their product from other laptops. They must keep inventing new products that are innovative and attractive in order to keep brand loyalty. In other words, they must keep the consumers “buy almost anything if it’s shiny and its made by Apple”. Then after other producers start to produce laptops, they can’t take business away from Apple since lots of consumers will still be loyal to Apple. So the demand of Apple wouldn’t drop much and Apple will be able to remain at the current price, and Apple will keep getting economic profit in the long run.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Companies like Apple will try to differentiate their products by mainly two ways: design and technology. Companies can design their products that look much cooler than others. For example, design of MacBook is very successful. Shiny, white shell with only an Apple icon. No other buttons or buttons. This design give consumer a fresh, simply and modern feeling. So companies can have brilliant design to attract consumers. The other way is technology. Apple is able to use technology to make the computer thinner and smaller. Nobody want to carry a huge and heavy laptop with them. Apple’s touch screen is also very innovative. By using different ways to touch the screen people can operate the computer fast and easily. Just by dragging with three fingers or twisting with two fingers, you can switch from different windows and turn the picture to the direction you want. There are lots of other technology superiority that Apple has. By developing technology companies can differentiate their products, because their product now have better quality and is more comfortable to use.
    I won’t buy a MacBook Wheel. The design is really a failure: who want to spend 45 minutes to type an email? Without the keyboard MacBook becomes so difficult to use. The design is pretty cute, but not useful.

  153. xhuanfon 22 Feb 2013 at 1:38 am

    To # MeganK:
    I really liked your answer on question about slope of demand curve, and I agree that in monopolistic competition, Apple’s abnormal profit will decrease over time. You said Apple can use economies of scale to build barriers to entry the industry. I don’t agree on that because economies of scale relates to price competition. What you mean by “Apple using economies of scale” is Apple is able to use economies of scale to produce product at a lower cost and charge it at a lower price, while new companies are not able to charge a price that low or they will make loss. However, charging a lower price will also make Apple loss profit. I think instead of competing price, Apple will focus on product differentiation. Apple will keep producing innovative products to maintain brand loyalty, then they are able to charge a higher price and make abnormal profit.
    I think MacBook Wheel is really terrible. Did you notice that in the video it said “spend 45 minutes to type an Email?” Without keyboard you have to type each single word with a lot of time. That design is really a failure, so it was just a joke. In reality Apple didn’t create such thing as MacBook Wheel at all. Apple wouldn’t have allowed such an awful design.

  154. Paul Jeffrieson 22 Feb 2013 at 4:29 am

    In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    This occurs because of the fact that after Apple successfully differentiates their product from other products in the same market, users begin making their purchasing decisions based on the features / differences between the Apple product and the other laptops on the market, meaning that price will begin to be, while still important, less important than it was previously before product differentiation occurred. This will lead to a decrease in the PED of the product, meaning the slope will increase because the product’s PED will become less elastic as a result of the product differentiation.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    As we know from our studies so far, Apple as well as all firms who achieve product differentiation with the help of a great innovation such as this hypothetical one, will cease making supernormal profits, and will eventually return to making normal profits. This change over time is because of the fact that their making supernatural profits will lead other companies or firms to try to take advantage of the emerging market. (This could be metaphorically described with the concept of one Shark drawing blood, the others come from miles away to feed as well). There are no barriers to entry when it comes to a competitive monopolistic market, therefore more firms will join the market in an attempt to compete with the dominant firm. Eventually supply will increase which will in turn cause a decrease in demand, and as a result of this transformation, profits will cease being supernormal and return to normal.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Firstly, I would not buy a MacBook if it were real, as I am a huge proponent of the “if it ain’t broke don’t fix it” mantra, and seeing as I have a MacBook which has done me well for the better part of two years now, I do not plan on upgrading until I need to, when this one eventually quits on me. Even then; however, I doubt that I would buy it, because I am not interested by what is the norm, I make purchasing decisions based on the performance and specs of the device, so without seeing the performance of the new computer as well as its price, I wouldn’t even consider it. Finally, some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years are by advertising themselves as being a purveyor of goods to a specific type of consumer, and hoping to draw from and take advantage of that entire demographic. Continuing with the thought of laptops, this is very evident. Through advertisement, Apple has attempted to make themselves be seen as the technology company for youth and creatives in general, Windows has attempted to show themselves as the technology company for older consumers, and more business-like clientele, whereas AlienWare has corned the demographic of ‘gamers’ with their line of Gaming PC’s. All in all, each major purveyor of goods in this case has a targeted demographic, and believes that the best way to achieve success is through differentiating their product from the others available and showing their product to be superior for specific reasons.

  155. Paul Jeffrieson 22 Feb 2013 at 4:32 am

    #xhuanf

    I truly appreciate all of the analysis that you packed into your answers, as they are extremely complete and hit on all major economic concepts that must be addressed. What I particularly enjoyed about your response was the fact that you mentioned that Apple tries to differentiate itself through two primary ways “design and technology.” The details that you went into as well as your opinions regarding product differentiation are sentiments that I share as well. Well done.

  156. ahmadson 22 Feb 2013 at 3:34 pm

    1- In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    Apple has always been one step ahead between computer innovators. They have been producing products that no one has ever thought of and through this (product differentiation) they add up to their loyal consumers. Creating new and better products also increases the inelasticity of consumer demand and their interest. The higher inelastic the consumer demand is, the demand curve will keep increasing thus Apple will be making more economical profit.

    2- Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    Not only for Apple, but for any firm who wishes to have the most control over any industry it must do all it can to keep producing/innovating new products that will keep the consumers attracted no matter what. Apple has done a good job in this regard, however it is likely that the abnormal profit that Apple is making at the moment will start decreasing to the point in which they will only be able to make normal profit- enough amount of fundings that would keep the firm moving. Apple must keep advertising and giving hope to its loyal consumers that they are working on creating better products.

    3- What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    Apple and its competitors (which can be many firms vs. only one *Apple) are putting lots of effort and fundings into advertisements to show comparison between their products. They have all also created many new products like iPhones and iPods by Apple.
    Personally, I wouldn’t buy Macbook Wheel because I don’t think its efficient gadget for a student. As we saw in the video, it took the guy to write an email in about 45 minutes. That is A LOT of time just for writing a casual email to your brother.

  157. ahmadson 22 Feb 2013 at 3:42 pm

    Comment to #kkozlovskis,

    It does seem kind of crazy to me as well when once a new product by the Apple is produced the people are willing to pay so much money while the difference isn’t even that much between the products. Let’s consider iPhone 4 and 5, although they are different but not totally. I mean you can still get the same apps running on pretty much all of the iPhones, no matter what version of it you own.
    You have mentioned in your post that the supernormal profit of Apple might attract other firms to step in then that will leave apple with only normal profit. But do you think that could actually be a possibility considering Apple announced that they had 35$ Billion in their revenue by 2012?

  158. ylahhamon 22 Feb 2013 at 5:59 pm

    In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    the slop increased because the inelasticity of the demand increased. This was probably because of advertising, product differentiating, developing brand loyalty and other forms of non price competition. The more inelastic curves means the company can charge higher prices and increase their profits. Also, because this is monopolistic competition, apple will be able to maintain profits in the long run if they keep up their image and advertising.

    Apple has tried to differentiate its products by using higher quality materials, slick user interfaces, vertical integration (apple hardware and software), and by creating very aesthetic products. No, i would not buy a macbook wheel, as it looks very hard to use and pointless, even if it is an apple product :P

  159. ylahhamon 22 Feb 2013 at 6:05 pm

    @Monique T very thorough answer, but i would like to point out two things:
    The demand for apples products did not become less elastic only because of product differentatiation causing there to be less substitutes, it was also the advertising and brand loyalty which made apples demand less elastic.
    The second is that in monopolistic competition, firms in fact can make supernormal profits in the long run.
    I like however what you said regarding dell computers, personalization and product differentiation in your last answer.
    —–
    1.In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    The slope of the demand curve increases because the demand curve is becoming more inelastic. This results because as Apple differentiates its products, it means its products are becoming less similar to the products of other firms, which means that there are fewer substitutes for Apple’s products. When there are less substitutes for a product, the demand becomes more inelastic, which is why the slope of the demand curve is increasing.

    2.Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    If Apple was in a market composed of monopolistically competitive firms, it would have normal economic profits in the long run: it would not be able to make supernormal profits. In order to maintain its profits in the long-run, Apple must continue to distinguish its products, and if it can make its products original enough, it will somewhat gain monopoly power over those products, and so it would be able to continue to earn supernormal profits.

    3.What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    First of all, I would definitely not buy a MacBook Wheel if it was real, due to the fact that it seems extremely inconvenient. In order to simply type this blog comment it would probably take me over an hour, if you saw how complicated it was on the video to type a simple sentence. The idea may seem fresh and original at first, but if you are creating a new product just for the sake of creating a new product and it doesn’t actually improve any features of the old product, then it is not effective and there is no point in buying it.
    Over the years, however, many companies have attempted ways to differentiate their properties. One successful example, in my opinion, is used by Dell Computers (a competitor of Apple): they allow consumers to customise their products, by adding different colours or patters to their laptops, rather than just the standard black laptop. I personally found that for the same price, I could purchase a laptop that was more personalised, with the programs and design I wanted, and so this was a successful attempt at differentiating their products from the many competitors they faced.

  160. skangon 22 Feb 2013 at 11:00 pm

    This happens because Apple was able to successfully brand themselves as something new and “the next big thing.” This makes people want Apple products, because everyone wants to be an individual. After a while, so many people are buying into Apple products, that to have an Apple product is to be popular and cool.

    It would ultimately maintain long-run profits. However, if Apple wishes to maintain its profits, then they must continue to innovate and change up the technological market.

    They have tried to make the move from a wheel on the computer to a touchpad, they have moved from MP3 players to basically mini-computers that mainly play music. I would not buy the Macbook wheel because it seems extremely inconvenient. And, like other apple products, it seems like it would be extremely costly.

  161. aleeon 23 Feb 2013 at 11:00 am

    The slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple because its products are less elastic than before. After successful product differentiation, Apple will have gained many loyal consumers who will buy anything “shiny and made by Apple.” This means that no matter what the product is and how much it is sold for, people will purchase the product. The change in demand is relatively less than the change in price.

    Apple’s economic profits will dwindle over time because other firms will enter the market for laptop computers in the hopes to make profits themselves. They will take the demand from Apple which will cause Apple’s demand curve to shift to the left until equilibrium is reached. Profits will be “exhausted away.” Apple must establish itself as a monopoly if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run. It must be able to keep other firms from entering the industry and taking its consumers.

    Companies like Apple have used advertising, marketing, and design to differentiate their products. They launch memorable campaigns and make their products as different (whether it is looks or features) as possible. I believe the MacBook Wheel is not real, but I would not buy it even if it was. The keyboard is the most efficient way to type, and there is no point in getting rid of it.

  162. aleeon 23 Feb 2013 at 11:04 am

    Hello # ylahham!
    I completely agree with you. It looks as though using the wheel is highly inconvenient. It would take a very long time to type up any document. I’m glad that this product does not actually exist.

  163. Sebastian Changon 23 Feb 2013 at 11:57 am

    1. In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    This question ought to be phrased to state that “the demand curve is becoming more elastic” as opposed to “increase in slope” as the latter statement is somewhat ambiguous. The main reason why the demand curve become more elastic after a successful product differentiation by Apple because after a successful product differentiation, consumers would perceive this ‘new’ products as a necessity, i.e. they ‘need’ this product. As mentioned in the article and the video above, there was a customer who had said that he would buy almost anything just as long as it is shiny and is made by Apple – such a remark reflects the brand loyalty of this particular customer, thus making this customer perceive that all shiny Apple products are a necessity (regardless of the other features and attributes of the Apple product).

    2. Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    Assuming that the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, it is likely that Apple’s current short term abnormal profit (or economic profit) would eventually diminish towards the normal profit level in the long run. This is because in a monopolistically competitive market, there are no (or little) barriers of entry, hence other firms would see this abnormal profits made by Apple and encourage them to enter this market. This would thereby cause Apple to lose some consumers in the long run (since these consumers would shift from purchasing Apple products to this new firm).
    However, if Apple wishes to maintain its abnormal profits in the long run, they would have to continue differentiating their product to make consumers perceive their products as a greater necessity than their competitors – i.e. make the consumer’s demand for their products to be price inelastic. This could include adding new features to their products, release new products regularly, improve their brand image, innovating, and providing better and more unique customer services.

    3. What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Some real ways that companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years includes adding new features to their products, release new products regularly, improve their brand image, innovating, and providing better and more unique customer services. If the MacBook Wheel was real, I would not have bought it because I find that the MacBook Wheel is more inconvenient for typing, particularly any work-related assignments. Furthermore, it would limit some of the abilities of the current MacBook computers (i.e. MacBook Pro and MacBook Air) such as keyboard shortcuts (to mute, increase volume, decrease volume, change window, formatting shortcuts, etc.) and gaming controls.

  164. Sebastian Changon 23 Feb 2013 at 12:09 pm

    #Sasha_S

    Great response Sasha, especially the way you responded in a unique and sophisticated manner. Regarding the first question, I definitely agree that by the use of product differentiation of Apple products, Apple is able to have a slight control over the prices of their products and hence, changes the slope of the demand curve for Apple products – however I believe that you should mention that this product differentiation would change the consumer’s perception of Apple’s products since consumers would perceive Apple’s products as more of a necessity as opposed to a luxury (or desire). The consumer’s perception of Apple’s product is the link between product differentiation and the change in the slope of the demand curve since the demand curve represents the consumer’s ability and willingness to purchase Apple products at each and every price level.

  165. Yada Pruksachatkunon 23 Feb 2013 at 10:15 pm

    # kkozlovskis
    Thank you for your great feedback!
    I would completely agree with you in that it would never make it through Apple’s prestigious product line. However, I was answering for the situation in that they do, for whatever reason, release the MacBook Wheel.

  166. skangon 24 Feb 2013 at 1:02 am

    # ylahham
    Aha, i agree with your response that the macbook wheel looks pointless. lately, it seems that everyone is just willing to jump on the apple bandwagon, but to spend so much money on a pointless object would be just foolish.

  167. doan hai vanon 24 Feb 2013 at 7:39 am

    1. In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    After the successful product differentiation by Apple, the slopes of the demand curve increase because of brand loyalty. That is Apple has made its brand become the favorite brand of major consumers. Consumers are attracted by the look and quality of Apple products that they are willing to buy them at a higher price level. Thus demand for Apple products turns from elastic to less elastic and thus to inelastic.
    2. Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    At first, demand for Apple is elastic. A change in price causes a large change in quantity demanded. Since Apple succeeds in monopolistic competition, demand for Apple is relatively inelastic. A change in price causes a small change in demand. For a given output, the price when demand is still elastic is less than it is when demand is inelastic. This economic profits rise overtime. If Apple wishes to maintain its profits in the long run, it has to satisfy its loyal demand by innovate its product with new generation, new look and new function.
    3. What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a Macbook Wheel if it were real?
    In monopolistic competition, Apple and its competitors mainly concentrate on non-price competition. This includes product’s differentiation in appearance and function. Each year, Apple comes up with new design but tries to stick with the simple, elegant pattern. Moreover, Apple keeps updating new applications for its product. For example, any Iphone or Ipod user can get access to apps like Iphone maps, Instagram, Angry birds, Ninja fruit,etc. Especially, these apps can only apply for Iphone, Ipod… This provokes consumers’ desire to own one of Apple products. Apple also improves the quality of its products’ extra functions such as camera and MP3.

  168. hteohon 24 Feb 2013 at 1:25 pm

    1. In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    Product differentiation refers to the change in product through physical difference (which may include shape, material, size, packaging, etc.), quality of the product, their services as well as brand image. Firms don’t compete with prices. In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. By differentiating their products, Apple is able to increase the prices set hence making the demand curve steeper. The slopes of the demand curve increased can be because of brand loyalty. It is so popular among consumers nowadays that consumers are willing to buy Apple’s products at a higher price. Consumers are attracted by the look and quality of Apple’s products hence making demand more inelastic/less elastic each time.

    2. Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    If the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, Apple’s economic profits will diminish over time and they will be making normal profits in the long run instead. This is because in a monopolistically competitive market, barriers to entry are low, so firms may be attracted into the market due to the abnormal profits made by Apple. Apple would then lose some consumers in the long run because business is taken away from existing firms, which causes demand curve to shift to the left hence price will equal to cost. If Apple wishes to maintain its profits in the long run, the will have to continue differentiating their products and attract more and more consumers. Better customer services can also attract more consumers and make most of them come back to the store to get the products as well. Apple’s products will have to be much more inelastic and increase customer’s brand loyalty so they will “buy almost anything if it’s shiny and its made by Apple”. By producing differentiated products, they will continue to earn their economic profits in the long run.

    3. What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years include changing the physical appearance to products, adding new features, improve brand image and release new products regularly. Most of Apple’s products are not seen in other industries, like the iPhone, it is a phone that no one has ever thought they would see but it was soon invented. If the MacBook Wheel were real, I don’t know if I would buy it or not. I believe I am also one that will “buy almost anything if it’s shiny and its made by Apple”. I have owned the iPod touch, iPod Nano, iPhone 3G, 3Gs, 4G, 4s, 5, MacBook Pro and MacBook air, iPad 1 and 2. Who knows if I might decide to get the MacBook Wheel or not.

  169. hteohon 24 Feb 2013 at 1:31 pm

    #Sebastian Chang,

    I agree with you that Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years through physical difference, quality, services, brand image, etc. If the MacBook Wheel was real, are you sure you wouldn’t want to get it? It may be inconvenient for typing but wouldn’t you buy one just to explore the new features? I believe that Apple’s products are becoming less and less elastic now so more consumers will be attracted to their products. iPhone 5 had bad reviews but millions still got it anyways. I will definitely consider of getting the MacBook Wheel if it was real. If most of your friends own one, wouldn’t you want to have one of your own too?

  170. Mkhosoon 24 Feb 2013 at 6:20 pm

    In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    Product differentiation is when a company seeks to make its products unique through unique combinations of colour, shape, material, size, packaging and so on. Product differentiation is a form of non-price competition. In economics, it is assumed that consumers have rationally (taking into account price) when making economic decisions thus creating a certain demand curve. Product differentiation builds brand loyalty and can be said to ‘interfere’ with this rationality. In turn, this makes demand for a firm’s product more inelastic (less responsive to changes in price), which is illustrated on a graph by making its demand curve steeper. This is what has occurred in Apple’s case.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    Apple’s profits would eventually fall until Apple was left making only normal profits. This occurs because in monopolistic competition barriers to entry are low allowing new firms attracted by short-term supernormal profits to begin competing. This eventually competes away supernormal profits for other firms. If Apple wishes to maintain long-run supernormal profit then is has to differentiate its products continually, be more aggressive in obtaining market share (and thus price-making power) and perhaps obtain more legal protection for its products and legal protection to limit other producers.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Apple has built a certain brand and image around its products using a certain set of colours, shapes, designs and so on. Apple products are generally use the colours black, white and grey. Similarly, their products are characterized by sleek shapes and designs with curves as opposed to hard edges. I would like to add, that I would not by a Mackbook if it was real because I do not like Macs.

  171. Mkhosoon 24 Feb 2013 at 6:24 pm

    @Doan Hai Van

    You point out in your answer to the last question that Apple sticks to an elegant simple pattern while still coming up with new designs for its products. Don’t you think that they will eventually they will exhaust this recipe? Or have they already done so with the Macbook Wheel?

    Also, you point out that they keep updating the applications for their products. Does it necessarily mean these are the best applications out there? The Apple Store is a far more closed and controlled environment then other application stores, and openness generally leads to innovation, and innovation leads to superiority. Do you think this could be Apple’s Achilles heel?

  172. amcpikeon 24 Feb 2013 at 9:08 pm

    Why does product differentiation increase the slope of Apples demand curves?
    Product differentiation is not necessarily always based on actual differences between products, and can just as often be based on – ungrounded- perceived differences in quality. For Apple this means if they play upon brand loyalty well enough to generate “hype”, they will be able to get people to perceive their products as superior -even if they aren’t in reality-. As their products become associated with excellence and innovation the demand for them will increase, potentially exponentially faster than competitors. In summary what these labels have managed to do is to create a consumer base so loyal to the brand that the demand is almost inelastic.

    Assuming that the market for laptops is monopolistically competitive, what will happen to apples profits in the long run? What can it do to maintain profits?
    Assuming that the market is monopolistically competitive we can only expect that in the long run Apples super normal profits will disappear, drawn away by competitors lured to the business. However Apple is in the unique situation that it still appears to be the underdog in an industry that was in place long before it arrived, which is completely false. This means that its name is synonymous with innovation, and new age thinking. One of the methods which Apple could employ to keep turning a profit in the long run is to develop a strong consumer base that keeps the demand relatively inelastic. Or they could just keep producing the best products.

    What are one ways Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products. Would you buy the Apple Wheel?
    There are many methods which companies can employ to differentiate their products. Whether these methods are corporeal such as the shape and design of their product, and its efficiency, or incorporeal such as the lifestyle that is marketed along side them. If I was to ask you the differences between an iPhone and an Android i’m certain I would hear about the different features each has -i.e. one has a better camera, the other has more apps-, but what is perhaps even more important in the decision making process is the lifestyle that the consumer believes they are buying with it. The Apple wheel for example, can we really think of a more useless invention? It’s an iPod build to be as big as a computer. It is the physical form of iTunes. So no, under few circumstances would I buy one of those.

  173. jyoungon 24 Feb 2013 at 9:19 pm

    • In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    Because as apple differentiates its products there are fewer similar substitutes which means that the price elasticity of demand becomes more inelastic. As noted in the article some people will buy anything if it’s made by Apple juts because of its brand. At the same time Apple can then charge must higher prices even if there is no practical reason other than its brand name.

    • Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    Apple clearly makes abnormal profits in the short and long-run considering their $140 billion+ cash pile. To continue this they need to maintain their brand and constant updating of products and innovations. If we say they are monopolistically competitive it means that other firms will enter the industry if Apple is making short run abnormal profits shifting Apple’s demand curve left resulting in normal profits in the long-run.

    • What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Samsung is a company that has followed Apple’s lead in creating huge hype for its Galaxy series like Apple does for its iPhone. Also in the last couple of years Intel has seen the success of the MacBook Air and has followed suit with Windows Ultrabooks which are made by a variety of firms and are thin laptops with long battery life. I actually just got an Ultrabook and it has a touchscreen which is clearly differentiation on a laptop (it also works better with Windows 8). I would definitely not by a MacBook Wheel if it were real because it is ‘innovation’ in the completely wrong direction and would ruin my productivity.

    -jyoung

  174. jyoungon 24 Feb 2013 at 9:20 pm

    Response to # kkozlovskis

    I liked all your answers and agree that it is madness to buy something just for its brand name. Though I admit that originally Apple could have charged much more for the first gen ipad than they did due to lack of competition most of their products are overpriced. That said Apple has the luxury of being able to charge a higher price with their brand name.

    -jyoung

  175. clundon 24 Feb 2013 at 9:44 pm

    1.When Apple launches a new product like the MacBook wheel, it isn’t possible for consumers to get a substitutable one, since Apple is the first to produce this good, so their demand for it is the total market demand (like in monopolies).
    2. It will decrease because other producers will start to produce laptops without keyboard as well (because they want a part of their abnormal profit) and that will make Apples demand more elastic again, because the firms are sharing the market profit. For Apple to keep their inelastic demand they will have to keep innovating their products constantly.
    3. Apple has ex changed their operating system from all other PC’s, other brands makes their design specific to distinct them form competitors, and advertising is also a good way to differentiate their products (in consumers mind or not). I don’t think I would buy it, because it seems really weird and I think that it’s much easier to write on a keyboard, which is what I use most of the time I spend on my laptop on doing.

  176. clundon 24 Feb 2013 at 9:45 pm

    Hi #Ozge_Elif_Ozer, you need to read the questions carefully. In 2 it was asking about what it would happen in the long run if Apple was in a monopolistic competitive market, and not a monopoly –there’s a big diffirence! Otherwise I agree with your answers.

  177. lannison 24 Feb 2013 at 10:46 pm

    1. In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    This is because the new advancement in the Apple line of computers is so revolutionary and distinct from any other computer that it is the most attractive on the market. Thus, the demand for this computer greatly increase and as does the profit.

    2. Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    Apples profits with eventually become normal profits, as many of the other firms will begin to implement the wheel in their computers, thus taking away business from Apple. In order for Apple to maintain profit, they must be constantly revolutionizing their products and making the next best thing.

    3. What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Apples biggest achievement would be the iPhone, making a phone that can do almost anything any other electronic device of any sort can. It has also made its products aesthetically more attractive than its competitors. Personally, I find the MacBook Wheel inefficient and stupid. It takes far too long to get any done such as writing an email or looking through your files in the same way that you could with a normal computer.

  178. lannison 24 Feb 2013 at 10:48 pm

    #clund

    Just a note, your answer to the first question is not quite accurate. Even if Apple was the only one supplying the Wheel, consumers are at full liberty to refrain from buying this product whether they think it is beneficial or not.

  179. amcpikeon 25 Feb 2013 at 12:21 am

    #megank

  180. amcpikeon 25 Feb 2013 at 12:26 am

    #megank
    I was wondering why you thought that Apples products were so inelastic, what is it that makes consumers keep coming back to purchase their products even though they may not be much of an improvement over the last version. Typically we find inelastic products where there are few substitutes and the product is necessary for survival. Consider the brand loyalty that Apple is famous for.

  181. edubison 25 Feb 2013 at 1:07 am

    In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    The demand curve becomes less elastic because people are suddenly more willing to buy Apples products right after consumers realize the product is special, innovative, and unique. “Through product differentiation, brand loyalty, and the ‘hype’ ” about a product, Apple, with help from advertising of course, experiences a more inelastic demand curve.
    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    Over time, because the abnormal profits Apple will experience, other firms will compete away the profits until an equilibrium is reached. To maintain its profits in the long-run, Apple can create barriers of entry into the market, keep coming up with and advertising innovative and useful ideas, and/or encourage brand loyalty with special rewards.
    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    Apple seems to focus on appealing to aesthetics and brand name status, as well as being ‘exclusive’ and a usable computer. Its competitors focus on usefulness in a business, a gaming computer, or a student’s computer. No, I would not buy a MacBook wheel because it seems useless to me. I need a keyboard to be efficient and a computer does not have to be made by Apple for me to be productive using it (concerning school, work, and communicating).

  182. edubison 25 Feb 2013 at 1:19 am

    #lannis
    While I agree with your statement that MacBook Wheels are “inefficient and stupid”, perhaps for a certain type of person this is perfect. If a person does not have to type much, the lack of keyboard wouldn’t be much of an issue. Also, if a person really liked the wheel, but finds it necessary for a keyboard, there are always keyboards that are connectable. I think for the vast majority, myself included, this product is pointless and inefficient, but perhaps if Apple had too much money in research and development and so came up with this to please a minority.

  183. deborahs56on 25 Feb 2013 at 2:57 am

    1)In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    The slopes of the demand curve increases because the demand is becoming inelastic. People are more willing to buy apple products because of brand loyalty and hype. The successful product differentiation by apple has made the products more attractive.

    2)Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolisticly competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    Apples economic products will fall to normal profit as more firms enter the market.When that occurs apples economic profit will reach an equilibrium.

    3)What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Apple for one has increased its company image through clever innovative advertisements. Instead of a simple advertisement of a computer, apple advertisement incorporates the product into the individuals everyday activities in life. Honestly, I would not buy the MacBook Wheel even if it were real. I believe that apple products though innovative are often times over priced. As a result of the lack of brand loyalty for apple products, i would not buy there MacBook Wheel.

  184. msurninon 25 Feb 2013 at 6:31 am

    • In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    Through product differentiation, which is one of the methods of non-price competition, Apple increases demand for its products, making it less elastic. That means that it can easily increase their prices, produce a similar quantity and earn greater economic profits. A greater inelasicity of demand is illustrated through a steeper demand curve (which is also the average revenue and price curve). Thus, at the same level of output where MC=MR Apple is able to set a higher price because of the increased demand. The costs have not changed, but due to a higher price, Apple is now making more abnormal profits.

    • Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    If we consider the market situation for laptop computers monopolistically competitive, we can predict what will happen to Apple’s economic profits over time. At the moment, Apple is making short run abnormal profits, hitch attract new firms into the industry. Because there are no barriers to entry, they can easily join the industry. As they enter, they will take some business from existing firms such as Apple, whose demand curves will start to shift to the left. Some firms will be making short-run losses and will be forced to leave the industry. This will probably not happen to Apple, since it is already so large and well-known (it also makes an incredible amount of profits). As other firms leave the industry, the firms that remain there will pick up trade from them and will notice their demand curves shifting to the right. In order for Apple to keep making abnormal profits, they have to keep up their level of non-price competition, such as design of their products and advertising.

    • What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    First of all, the article made it seem that it was real, which was quite funny. I would definitely check it out at the Apple Store if it were real, but seeing these people struggling writing an email, I would probably think twice before spending money on another useless product.
    Companies have two ways to convince consumers to buy their products – either through price- or non-price competition. For products that we buy everyday such as milk, price competition is probably the best option, but for a laptop that we are planning to rely on for several years, we, consumers, are looking for quality and sometimes are willing to spend a little more money for something that looks good and works well. Apple knows it and uses its knowledge and our constant attraction to all shiny and new to sell their products to us. A few examples of Apple’s non-price competition are pretty Apple Stores, nice people at support, design (of course!), even packaging. Next time you walk by an Apple ad, take a closet look at it and also at how many people glance at it ;)

  185. msurninon 25 Feb 2013 at 6:44 am

    #deborahs56

    Regarding question 2: what would then happen as more and more firms enter the industry? What would happen to other firms’ profits and will they be able to stay in the industry? If not, how will the remained firms benefit from that?

    Now, you got the concept from Economics, but is it really going to happen to Apple in real life? With the current company’s size and their large abnormal profits, Apple is very unlikely to go back to making just normal profits, don’t you think? ;)

  186. avonwendorffon 25 Feb 2013 at 7:38 am

    Apple makes the demand more inelastic by differentiating its product. This is because with a significantly different product, there are fewer substitutes for their product, and therefore less elastic.

    If the market were monopolistic competitive, then Apple would not have abnormal profits in the long run, because firms would see this and rush in. However, in order to keep this, Apple must continually adapt its products and differentiate often.

    There are many companies which differentiate its products. Southwest airways for example, have 1 free checked bag, I believe. This is different from most other companies, and has increased their business. I don’t think I would buy a MacBook if it were real, because I think that I am comfortable with my current computer. However, if I did buy it, I would wait until other firms rushed into the market and offered a similar product at a lower price.

  187. avonwendorffon 25 Feb 2013 at 7:43 am

    Hi # msurnin,
    I liked that you pointed out that companies have to “convince” consumers to buy their product. I think that is a good point because many people are traditional and don’t want to accept a dramatic change like this new product is suggesting. Apple would have to actively campaign for this change and reach out to a large variety of people.
    Also good job pointing out the brand loyalty that Apple has. We have all heard the lines that form outside Apple stores. That is some clear brand devotion!

  188. tleeon 25 Feb 2013 at 8:33 am

    In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    The slope of the demand curve increases due to the fact that the demand is becoming more inelastic. People are buying more Apple products because of many factors, including brand loyalty, uniqueness, and much more. The more people buy the Apple products, this is sort of free advertising for Apple.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    In the short run, Apple may be making abnormal profits. However, in the long run, the firm will always be making normal profit. In order to maintain positive abnormal profits, Apple must develop improvements in their products. They may also have to change their marketing strategies by targeting new consumers.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    The iPhone is the perfect example. Apple put a lot effort into making a time efficient and handy device that contains almost all the functions of a computer into a portable device that fits in our pockets. I don’t think I would buy a MacBook Wheel because I don’t really see the use for it.

  189. tleeon 25 Feb 2013 at 8:35 am

    # avonwendorff

    I really like the example you used for questions #3. I never knew that those type of methods were used to differentiate airway companies. All your answers are clear.

  190. david.yooon 25 Feb 2013 at 2:30 pm

    • The slopes of the demand curve increases after the successful product differentiation by Apple because each of their product has unique design with an outstanding quality that represents Apple. Also, the “Mac Book Wheel”, is so outstanding than any other computers which make the demand more inelastic and the demand curve increases. Even though the price of the product increase, the consumers would still want to buy it since they think there is no alternative to the Apple products.

    • The “Mac Book Wheel” is an outstanding computer with a high quality features and it is really simple to use and loved among the customers. However, if the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, all the supernormal profits for Apple will competed away in the long run meaning it will change to normal profits. In order to maintain its profits in the long run, Apple should keep creating and innovating their new products or advertisements that they could attract people.

    • Company like Apple tried to differentiate its products like Iphones, there is generation of Iphones including Iphone 1 to Iphone 5. They attempted to differentiate the product by adding more app and features with good quality and of course the “looks”. Obviously Apple had successfully differentiated its products because it is clear that Apple is one of the top brands in cell phone industry. Finally, I would not buy the “Mac Book Wheel” because I don’t like the look of it and seems very inconvenient.

  191. david.yooon 25 Feb 2013 at 2:35 pm

    #tlee

    Hi, i agree with your response. The demand becomes more inelastic. since people are buying more Apple products because of many factors, including brand loyalty, uniqueness as you just said. Furthermore, in the long run, the firm will always be making normal profit so in order to maintain positive abnormal profits, Apple must develop improvements in their products or even create or innovate their products to attract people.

  192. Malen Kon 25 Feb 2013 at 3:43 pm

    • In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    This happens because of product differentiation. Product differentiation exists when a good or service is perceived to be different from other goods or services in some ways. Products may be differentiated by brand name, colour, appearance, packaging, design, quality of service, skill levels etc. In the Apply demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple because they made their products unique and attractive to their consumers. As Apple tries to increase their market power and demand for their computers, the demand will become less elastic because of brand loyalty and product differentiation. Consumers will be willing to pay for whatever price is set by Apple because they think that Mac is the better computer brand compared to other brands.
    • Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, Apple will make a normal profit rather than abnormal profit because in a monopolistically competitive market, there are low barriers to entry and when other firms see that Apple is making abnormal profits, this will attract them into the industry in pursuing for abnormal profits. When there are firms entering the industry, Apple’s demand will fall as competition increases. If Apple wishes to maintain its profits in the long run, they will have to increase its market power as said in the blog by increasing demand for their products through product differentiation, advertising, developing more brand loyalty and “hype”.

    • What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    Some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years include changing designs of their products, having new programs, upgraded features, etc. Some examples in the last few years are touch screen phones/computers, HD screens for phones/computers, etc. I would actually buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real because growing up, I’ve always been using Apple products and I just feel like its better than other brands.

  193. Malen Kon 25 Feb 2013 at 3:43 pm

    #doan hai van
    Hey Hai Van, I definitely agree with your points however, I don’t think that economic profits will rise but it will actually fall because in the long run, more firms will enter the industry which will cause demand for Apple to fall as well, therefore creating normal profits. Again, this is based on the theory of monopolistic competition.

  194. ykim3on 26 Feb 2013 at 3:20 am

    1.In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    – This happens because of the differentiation of Apple’s product. Many companies had simple and usual software before. However, after different products of Apple were released, new systems were surprising people and they made people to attention on the products. Therefore, as Apple introduces these things, people got attracted to it and buy them. This eventually led the high revenues and high profits.

    2.Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    – Apple should continue to be differentiated. Since there are no barriers to enter this industry, many companies have been making similiar products. For example, Samsung has its own program for music and movies. Therefore, in order to make an abnormal profits later, Apple must keep being differentiated.

    3.What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    – Apple made its own software, Mac. Not in Mac, people can never experience wheel or other softwares, etc. I would like to buy it because I want to be differentiated with others. Also, this is the reason why people like different products because they can feel they are different and want to show that they have brilliant items.

  195. ykim3on 26 Feb 2013 at 3:22 am

    # Malen K
    I also agree with your opinion on buying Apple because you just like it. There are many people who just like the brand itself. And, this is very significant because they will like and favor Apple, even though other products are not that different with others. The brand, Apple itself can differentiate its normal items.

  196. akimon 26 Feb 2013 at 3:25 am

    In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    Due to product differentiation, the prices for the apple products will start to rise. People are more likely to buy products from a well known brand compared to products from a not well known brand. This is also known as brand loyalty. The demand curve starts to increase due to the product differentiation because Apple’s unique features on its products. Because of the unique feature that Apple product contains, it’ll attract more costumers thus increasing in demand.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    Apple will still be earning abnormal profit and as other companies see this, they’ll want to start joining. As more companies join the industry, Apple will start earning less abnormal profit and eventually not earn any abnormal profit at all. The reason why the abnormal starts to drop is due to the fact that in monopolistic competition, firms can either leave or join without any obstacles. In order for Apple to maintain its abnormal profit, Apple must attract consumers by adding more unique features to their products.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    Apple and other companies attempted to differentiate their products by putting a logo on each of the products that they sell. I would not buy a Macbook Wheel due to the fact that Apple over prices most of their items when you can probably buy an item similar to theirs for cheaper.

  197. akimon 26 Feb 2013 at 3:28 am

    # doan hai van
    Hey Doan hai van!
    I agree with most of your key points. However, I believe that Apple will lose profit in a monopolistic competition. The reason why is because as other companies see Apple earning abnormal profit, they’ll want to join. The abnormal profit will decrease as time goes on and eventually disappear.

  198. rkangon 26 Feb 2013 at 3:55 am

    1. In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    – Monopolistic competition can be seen very similar compared to a modern day market structure. In today’s market, there is product differentiation to prevent a total monopoly or a perfectly competitive market where there is a homogeneous product. Monopolistic competition is a more realistic market structure that we can actually relate to. With that being said, the demand curve increases after different Apple products are produced because of “branding.” In a monopolistically competitive market, firms will try to compete with each other by producing better goods. Apple has produced goods that are good enough to catch the attention of consumers. They have created brand loyalty between the consumer and the producer. So whenever a new Apple product like the MacBook wheel, the demand for the product skyrockets. A man in the interview even says “I’ll buy anything if it’s from Apple.”

    2. Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    – In a monopolistically competetive market, firms will eventually average out from short run abnormal profits to long run normal profits. As firms in a certain industry get abnormal profits in the short run, newer firms will join due to the lack of barriers to entry. This will cause the supply curve to shift to the right and thus lowering the price of a good. Over time, Apples economic profits will eventually diminish into normal profits. However, if Apple wants to maintain its abnormal profits throughout the long run, it would have to keep its appeal to consumers. Apple would have to consistently put out the best products so that people would prefer Apple products over other products. Sometimes, even hyping their products and establishing a brand loyalty between the consumer and producer can help in maintaining profits.

    3. What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    – Apple and its competitors have attempted to further advance their products to appeal to consumers. This means that Apple and other companies have tried to evolve the regular touch screen phone by inputting a higher megapixel camera, multi-finger combinations, and even easy transfer of data like the Galaxy S3. These creative innovations are what keep the good companies like Samsung and Apple alive. I laugh at the MacBook wheel because of its inefficiency. I would rather type than hassle over a wheel to type my research paper. Typing would be more efficient….

  199. rkangon 26 Feb 2013 at 4:02 am

    #akim

    Honestly, the phone market is all about who can come up with the most creative additions to the simple touch screen phone. Apple’s success comes from its economies of scales that it experiences. Because Apple is so big, they have a large number of qualified designers and economists. They also have the privilege of advanced research because they can afford it. This is how Apple keeps attracting its customers and how Apple will most likely maintain abnormal profits even throughout the long run.

  200. Javier Granadoson 26 Feb 2013 at 4:26 am

    In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    This happens because people usually buy products that are unique, as uniqueness usually means innovation. And people like to buy products that are unique, even if they have no use. But as other companies see the positive result of the new product, they create a similar product but with innovations, and people start to buy this other company’s product. And this is where the demand of Apple’s product decreases.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    Right now Apple has increased their sells, and this has happened because of their way of selling their product. Their way of selling their product has been by giving the product the perfect advertisements at the perfect moments. And also, their sells in laptops (MacBooks) have increased, as they have been able to sell well other products like the iPhone’s. What I mean by this is that consumers that have first bought iPhones and have liked the product, go and buy other products from the brand, in this case the MacBooks. I can consider myself one of this people. And the same happens in other brands, not only with Apple. But going to what I’ve said previously, other companies have also learnt from Apple in the way of selling their product. And the effectiveness of other companies (like Samsung) in the sells, has affect the demand of Apple products, which has decreased. If Apple decides to keep up their profits, they have to find themselves a place in their market, and innovate with new ways of selling the product, that can be efficient.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    The example that comes the fastest to my mind when thinking of companies that have learnt to differentiate their products is Samsung. Samsung has basically followed the same strategy as Apple has. The first thing to do is make a strong product with the best quality possible. In the case of Apple was the iPhone and in the case of Samsung was the Samsung Galaxy. After this product they’ve both looked in new markets and they’ve made personal tablets, as well as keeping the product with the most demand, and I’m talking about laptops. Talking about the MacBook wheel, no, I would not buy it, because I don’t think it would have an efficient use, the same as I have done with the iPad mini (which personally has no use and there is no innovation in it, so I’ve decided not to buy it).

  201. Javier Granadoson 26 Feb 2013 at 4:33 am

    #Trevor
    I kind of agree with what you say, but not completely. Consumers don’t buy a product because the price goes up, totally the opposite. If the price of a product is high, and there are alternatives to it on the market, people will obviously not buy them. And this is what recently has happened with the latest products of Apple. People tended to buy iPhones when it was the most famous smartphone on the market, but now (and I think that world crisis has affected), people tend to look more on the price than before, and consumers have seen that there are other smartphones for a much lower price, like LG or HTC smartphones, and they are as good as iPhones, but with less fame/popularity.
    Other things that you’ve post, I agree. But keep in mind what I’ve said. :)

  202. bobby con 26 Feb 2013 at 4:46 am

    In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    Product differentiation is due to Apple creating a brand name for all their products. There are many sayings online such as “stick an Apple logo on it and you’ll sell millions”. While this is a typical internet joke, it is partly true. Nowadays, many consumers will purchase an Apple product just because they made it. In the graph, consumers will see a new, completely different and expensive Apple product that they must purchase. Because of brand loyalty, Apple will be able to increase the price without affecting the demand in a negative way. This causes an increase in slope of the demand curve.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    If Apple were to stay the same and keep releasing the same product again and again each year, their profits would drop dramatically. If Apple wishes to maintain its profits, they must stay on top of the innovation board, releasing products with fresh ideas frequently to top competitors such as Samsung and Microsoft.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Not so much anymore, but Apple used to really be the only company with sleek, desktop all-in-one computers (iMac line). This was a fresh new idea of combining the screen and desktop “tower” into one piece. Apple also used to be known for their aluminium computers; compared to many other competitors who stuck with plastic only until recently.

    I don’t think I’m thaat big of an Apple fan, but it would be a cool item just to have. I would take one if it were given to me for free but not if I had to pay. I would definitely like to play around with one if a friend bought a MacBook Wheel.

  203. bobby con 26 Feb 2013 at 4:51 am

    #edubis

    You bring up good points on the first question about how Apple can stay inelastic with brand loyalty, advertisements, and product differentiation. As a whole, Apple has done a magnificent job of capturing these key aspects, and their profits show this.

  204. stakon 26 Feb 2013 at 2:42 pm

    1. In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    – After the successful product, in this case Macbook Wheel, the demand curve became more inelastic because the consumers thought that Apple produces something innovative and their products are worth paying more

    2. Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    – Eventually in the monopolistic competition, the abnormal profit that Apple is benefiting will start to be competed away and Apple will have to make new products that can attract the consumers

    3. What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    – Im not a big Apple fan but i do believe their products, iphones and macbook etc, are very creative and user friendly. Their designs are neat and attractive. Also the software they use for iphones, maybe they do for the laptops too, the ios is rather exclusive. If the macbook wheel was real, I dont think i will buy it because i believe that all their products are over-priced and their competitors produce cheaper and almost equal quality products

  205. stakon 26 Feb 2013 at 2:48 pm

    #akim

    I agreed with your points until i read your answer for the last question. Of course they do have different and creative logos as you have stated, but i think they also spend the same amount of time, if not a lot more, to enhance the quality of the product they put on the market, for example, creative designs, user friendliness, high quality camera, etc

  206. m2keoon 26 Feb 2013 at 4:47 pm

    1. In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    This happens due to product differentiation. Product differentiation occurs when a good or service is seen to be different from other goods or services in some way. Products may be differentitated by brand name, colour, appearance, packaging, design, quality of service, skill levels, and many other methods. The slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple because Apple has made its products unique and attractive to consumers to increase market demand for their computers, and thus making demand less elastic. When demand becomes inelastic, Apple is able to gain more market power and thus able to set the price of their product. This is shown through the slope of the demand curve as it increases after product differentiation.

    2. Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, in the long run, Apple will be making a normal profit instead of an abnormal profit because in this market, there are free barriers to entry, which means that other firms are able to enter the market whenever they want to. Seeing Apple making an abnormal profit in the short-run would just attracts more firms to enter the market because of the intention of gaining the abnormal profits. Thus when more firms enter the market, Apple will face a decrease in quantity demanded, as there are more competition now. Therefore if Apple wishes to maintain its profits in the long run, they could again increase their demand by product differentiation, brand loyalty, and the “hype” surrounding the launch of new products with better features and improvements.

    3. What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    Some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years include changing the physical appearance to make it more appealing (perhaps with more variety in colors), provide new features/programmes, enhancing the quality of the screen image, and even including very odd features such as waterproof, shockproof, etc. I think I will buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real simply because I am a Mac lover and their designs and features are just so much cooler and better than other brands.

  207. m2keoon 26 Feb 2013 at 5:01 pm

    # rkang

    Hey there! Great response. You’ve provided a great amount of details including a quote from the video, which is great because in this context, it actually fits perfectly and I thought it was really interesting for you to do so. I agree with you that Apple and its competitors especially in these recent years have been constantly trying to invent new products with an even more advanced technology and this is really what appeals to the consumers especially in this general. This is because many of the people today are somehow very attracted to these crazy new technologies that might probably be very different and new to them and that being said, one of those people would be me. I’m basically in awe with the new technologies today because it is just exciting to see and even better to try out what is recently invented and as crazy as it sounds, I am willing to actually purchase the MacBook Wheel if it were real because I thought it will be pretty cool to use. ?

  208. doan hai vanon 26 Feb 2013 at 5:24 pm

    Thank to Malen K and Akim for your opinions, you are absolutely right about the equilibrium state of the market in the long run. In the short run, Apple may earn abnormal profit. And because of this, more firms from outside of the market would wish to enter the industry. Thus demand for Apple products will fall and Apple will earn normal profit.
    Hey Mkhoso! Thank you for our response
    To my personal opinion, I think any firm who wishes to make their brand outstanding, remarkable but still able to remain fashionable overtime, has to carefully consider how it would present its products. Let take Beer Heiniken as an example. From 1873 to 2013 (http://www.heineken.com/AgeGateway.aspx), this brand keeps the exact logo and theme color although there are lots of development in design. The firm knows that it has widened number of consumers who are loyalt to products because of the distinct design. Moreover, the design has imprinted in consumers that once it changes the design, people cannot recognise it or feel uncomfortable with it. If I ask my dad “what thing do you think of when I say green?”, he says Heiniken. It would be odd if one day this firm decides to turn the theme color to red. It would loose the original identity.
    This works exactly for Apple. Without setting any original pattern, the firm will find it hard to create brand loyalty. Moreover, Apple is very brilliant when it decides to stick with the plainly simple pattern since simple pattern never seems to be unfashionable overtime.

  209. ABarrowon 26 Feb 2013 at 6:08 pm

    The slopes of the demand curve increase after successful product differentiation by Apply because of the non-price determinants of demand, advertising and consumer tastes. When a new product is launched it is vital that the product is advertised to the fullest, because without basic information of the product, consumers will not buy. Successful advertising campaigns persuade people to buy good X, the Macbook Wheel, over good Y, any other laptop, thereby increasing the demand for good X. Likewise, demand is affected by consumer tastes, which change over time. Changing tastes have become a feature of many industry’s, especially the laptop business. Advertising has a major influence on the tastes of consumers, and that is why Apple has vested interest in promoting dissatisfaction in consumers, the Macbook Wheel’s simpler user interface, to open up new markets for them to exploit.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, Apple’s economic profit will increase (according to the graphs and the theory of monopoly) over time as there is no difference between the demand curve for the laptop industry and Apple, and seeing as how there will be no close substitutes if Apple decides to raise their prices, Apple will make even more money.
    Apple must consolidate their monopolistic power by erecting significant barriers to entry in the personal laptop industry to maintain its profits in the long-run, might I suggest legal restrictions in the form of patents for their one touch wheel, revving up the capital costs and thus the minimum efficiency scale, merge with Toshiba or consult hacking mercenaries…

    Real ways that companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to difference their products over the years include:
    Design: Lightweight, portability, sleek and sexiness, I could go on and on…
    Innovation: Groundbreaking interface, applications, multiple uses, etc..
    Brand recognition: Eye-catching logo, must I go on…
    Advertising: Enough said already…

    As for the question whether I would by a Macbook Wheel…Well let’s just say…

    – This message was sent from a Macbook Wheel

  210. ABarrowon 26 Feb 2013 at 6:15 pm

    To everyone who wrote they would not purchase the Macbook Wheel on account of its typing abilities,

    Could you not LEARN to use the typing wheel efficiently as you have LEARNED to type efficiently using a standard keyboard layout…because there are many other keyboard variations out there…and users have LERANED to use them…some variations have been proven to have greater typing efficiency that the standard keyboard layout…

    The moral of the message…

    LEARN!

    peace out.

  211. nwarneron 26 Feb 2013 at 6:38 pm

    • In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    Due to price differentiation Apple creates unique product that is different from its competitors this causes the demand for their products to be inelastic. Another characteristic noted in the article is the intense brand loyalty had by many of Apple’s consumer. This often causes them to be willing to wait in long lines for the newest Apple product. Even when Apple upgrades the product even slightly people will be willing to spend hundreds of dollars to buy the new product.
    • Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    At first Apple will make large abnormal profits as the demand for the “innovative” computer is high causing the abnormal profits. This will be added to by the large brand loyalty that is present in Apple consumers. However since we are assuming that the market for laptops is monopolistic then eventually another firm will come up with a similar or more innovative product that will cause the demand curve to shift to the left and cause normal profits to be made in the long term.
    • What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    In the tech and laptop industry many firms try to differentiate themselves. For instance for the first time since Apple entered the mobile firm market it is being challenged for highest selling phone by Samsung. Samsung tries to differentiate its phone by making it have a larger screen or that it has other features such as beam that iPhones do not have yet. In the laptop industry many laptop makers seem to be following Apple’s lead on creating a thin computer with long battery life. I would not buy a MacBook Wheel as it seems to make using a computer much more difficult than it is now and does not innovative in a right way.

  212. nwarneron 26 Feb 2013 at 6:39 pm

    #Malen K
    I like your detailed answers to the questions. I especially like the amount of detail that you put into the answer. However, I disagree with you that this computer would work well as it would cause massive inefficiencies as it would require having to learn a whole new way to type and one of the people “interviewed” in the video even said that it took 45 minutes to write an email and had a 19 minute battery life.

  213. dtumanavarroon 26 Feb 2013 at 7:16 pm

    In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    Apple’s products have a reputation for being innovative and unique from the rest. Because of this connotation they produce lot’s of brand loyalty within consumers. Along with this their products are a bit on the pricey side, more so in the past than now but at a certain viewpoint apple products can be seen as Veblen goods. All of this consequently makes apple products more price elastic, hence apple’s demand curve increased.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    If Apple does not keep an iron grip on it’s consumers through innovation, quality, advertising and a competitive price, Apple can expect to see other firms rise into the market. Eventually if Apple’s grip slips they will begin to make normal profits as other firms fight with competitive prices and shift the supply and demand curves.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    In the case of Apple, uniform looks have been a way to attract customers. For some reason everyone is attracted to white or silver-gray sheen that builds up most of apples products. I’ve heard that Apple has patented their touch screen, which is why they seem to be the only one with a decent touch screen. Apple make’s things easier for the consumer by making lots of shortcuts and pre setting things for them, not that this is always a good thing.

  214. nikolay@pamojaon 26 Feb 2013 at 8:19 pm

    1. the slope increases for the demand curve because demand becomes more inelastic with the launch of a new product. This is a result of the marketing campaign for the new products which outline the differences between products. To add to that at the launch apple could very well be the only company making the product as cheap knockoffs have yet to surface.

    2. while apple may make abnormal profits or losses in the short run, in the long run they should eventually come to an equilibrium that is normal profits where all expenses, including the opportunity cost of running the firm are covered.

    3. first, as the macbook wheel commercial is clearly a stab at mac owners/users I would not. Real ways apple differentiates itself form other computers is by having a very recognizable form to their computers, also they market their products, and one of the most effective things they do is create a system where all their products sync and work together. This serves to make it harder for people who have macs to shift over to another company.

    @m2keo I take issue that you are willing to buy the macbook wheel based on the idea that it would be “pretty cool” I take issue because if we are to adhere to the newscast as truth, then it is overpriced beyond belief, and can’t actually do anything, like the guy who used it literally said I spent 45 minutes writing one email, which wasn’t a long email. But I suppose it is your money to burn.

    @Javier Granados that was a brilliant reply and I especially agree that there are many alternatives to the iphone

  215. DBharwanion 26 Feb 2013 at 8:32 pm

    1. In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    The slope of the demand curve increases because of the successful product differentiation by Apple. Apple is always creating innovative products to satisfy the consumers’ wants, and this attracts more buyers. As the demand increases, it becomes more inelastic.

    2. Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    Apple will have to keep innovating new products in order to keep their profit levels high.

    3. What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    Apple releases new products very frequently and spend fortunes to advertise the product. I wouldn’t buy a Macbook Wheel even though I am an extreme Apple fan, because it will take me forever to type or ‘scroll’ to each letter. As apple products are known for being the most convenient to use, I don’t think this one of them.

  216. jaimejaime8on 26 Feb 2013 at 8:50 pm

    Since the slope for the demand curve increases, now costumers will be willing to pay a higher price for the products thus increasing price and leaving demand unchanged.

    Theoretically in the long-run Apple’s abnormal profits should become normal due to the many firms entering the industry, looking for high profits following the model of Apple. In order to avoid this Apple must keep innovating and differentiating its products in order to make people keep, or gain new, brand loyalty for Apple.

    In order to differentiate their products they constantly keep innovating. One thing I notice often is that Apple eliminated all the parts of their products where you can see they got stuck or screwed, thus making everything out of bigger pieces that look more aesthetic. Also Microsoft improves its software in order to stand out. An example of this is the many people that think Microsoft Office is the best office pack and therefore even people buying macs end up paying money to Microsoft, which is somehow an intelligent move by Microsoft.

    I would definitely not buy a MacBook Wheel as it’s pretty pointless. Low battery and slow typing and controlling. All in addition to Apple’s usual over-raised price for a product. I’ve always personally thought that a lot of people should really open their eyes and stop guiding themselves just for the Apple logo when buying computers as it’s not the best computer you can acquire for that price, nor the only beautiful one. From my point of view Apple’s revenue is highly based on these blind followers that are willing to pay anything for any new product nobody has.

  217. jaimejaime8on 26 Feb 2013 at 8:57 pm

    # nikolay@pamoja

    I especially agree with you in the fact that most Apple users find it hard to change to any other firm due to the high difference in software (Commands, Porgrams, Browsers, Applications, etc) and also the other way around. In fact due to this I think that in the second question, the answer is merely theory as in the case of Apple no other firms can really have an opportunity to make a change by entering the industry. I do think though ( And hope) that in a very long time this will come to an equilibrium but I think it’ll be mostly due to copying the other firms and only thanks to the firms which are already large.

  218. bdesslegnon 26 Feb 2013 at 9:00 pm

    In the graphs above, the slope of the demand curve increases after a successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    – This happens because apple has taken the demand for products away from other firms and has increased its demand. This happens through product differentiation, apple basically has something that others don’t in their products. Because of this consumers will be attracted to apple products, thus increasing the demand for the products.
    Assuming the market for laptop computers in monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to economic profits over time? What must apple do in order to maintain its profits over the long-run?
    – If time is considered, in the long-run apple should attain normal profits. If there are no barriers to entry and exit to the industry, i.e. no barriers as such of patents and other innovation ideas, then other firms should be able to produce similar features as apple does and even surpass apple’s technological advancements in their products, which will force apple to have normal profits at the end.
    – In order for apple to maintain its profits, it should consistently provide quality goods and work very intently in keeping its products unique, to establish brand loyalty.
    What are some real ways companies like apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would you buy a mac-book wheel if it were real?
    – Attempts at differentiating products over the years include: lighter, faster, slicker, and big-memory space and ram space in laptops. Providing consumers with the tools to customize their own laptop experience is also another attempt.
    – I will not buy a mac-wheel, I don’t like apple products in the first place.

  219. bdesslegnon 26 Feb 2013 at 9:12 pm

    # Amadou Barrow

    We are talking about efficiency, and learning to type in a whole new way takes time. And this typing system, the one that we are using now, is integrated in almost all the products available. So I mean, we can’t shift to a whole new typing system.

  220. alessiaayoubon 26 Feb 2013 at 10:04 pm

    1. In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen??
    Since product differentiation is usually aesthetic facet [(examples would be colour, size, brand name and quality) not change in price basically], by differentiating their product through design aesthetics, they are able to dictate the price (making them ridiculously high), and gain a degree of uniqueness that grants them limited inelasticity.
    Product differentiation is the change in a product that is not reflected, necessarily, in price. It is usually in an aesthetic facet, such as color, size, brand name, quality of the materials/service, etc. The MacBook wheel is a humorous parody of some of the innovative product differentiations that Apple has made, primarily with the click wheel of their seminal MP3 player, the iPod. By differentiating their product through design aesthetics, they are able to dictate the price (making them ridiculously high), and gain a degree of uniqueness that grants them limited inelasticity. This inelasticity increases their slope for their demand curve, which, in turn, makes it steeper than it previously was.
    2. Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run??
    Apple’s economic profits will eventually end up becoming normal profits. As firms are very much enamored with the idea of entering a market that has great potential for economic profit, especially in a highly profitable industry like the computer industry, it is theoretically inevitable that competitors will creep their way into the market. This will create competition to the point where there are many competitors attempting to win on the economic profits that are up for grabs. Hence, to combat this, Apple must use its product differentiation to stay a few steps ahead of its competitors, as it will make their products that much more inelastic. By keeping their products inelastic, the customer base that they have established will not find any sort of alternative that is quite up to the standards that they have set. Hence, they will continue to earn their economic profits.

    3. What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real??
    Personally I don’t think I would buy the MacBook wheel even though I am a fan of apple. Normally apple products make your life easier but as mentioned it “only takes about 45 minutes to write an email”. It would complicate my life for no reason. I am all for apple product because for the most part they revolutionized different electronic markets, especially MP3 (with the iPod by adding the click wheel to enable easier and quicker usage) and the Phone (iPhone by removing the keypad) markets. By removing the keypad they introduced the touch screen and the app store! Which is constant income as well as how they constantly modify and make their products “better”(examples would be better camera’s and better battery life).
    They had an idea that no one else thought of, which did simplify people’s lives. The wheel (I think) is not useful granted (I believe!) that apple does not spare any expense in order to use some of the finest material available. Which also accounts to their high prices. I don’t think the price would be a factor for other apple customers (although it would be for me because I wouldn’t spend that much money for something that isn’t useful) because the Macbook Wheel would cost the same as a Macbook Air.

  221. alessiaayoubon 26 Feb 2013 at 10:26 pm

    # bdesslegn
    Why do you no like apple products? Because of the price? Or esthetics? What is it that makes you not like them? Just curious..

  222. dtumanavarroon 26 Feb 2013 at 10:52 pm

    Hey # stak,
    I agreed with the bulk of what you said, (everything from the reasoning for why the demand curves increased, to how apple tries to differentiate it’s products). One question that I did think could have had more detail or ideas was number 2, “What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run”. I think that there are many different ways apple can keep its consumers, from new ideas to new products to new software. I also believe that a firm tends to use a lot of advertisement, especially when their demand starts to decrease because they are worried of any further decreasing, so naturally apple would as well as new competitors enter the market. Thanks!

  223. Csabaon 27 Feb 2013 at 7:42 pm

    1) Through succssesful product differentiation the demand for apple products increases, which causes it to become inelastic. Apple has achived this because of its loyality to their consumers as shown in the example above. Through this inelasticity in the demand the slope increases.

    2)Apple has to keep up with the varitey and production of new products. But also they have to maintain their profits where they reach equilibrium, to keep the demand at a certain level where it is enough to survive in the competetive market.

    3)They would have to keep up their service for example increase the years of the guarantee. They also have to grow with the technology and always be on track or even further.
    I would not buy an apple wheel because it makes life harder, For this text i would probably take quintuple of the time I am taking right now. Therefore i dont think that i would buy that product. I seems useless.

  224. Csabaon 27 Feb 2013 at 7:56 pm

    @ jaimejaime8

    How can you tell wether apple has over-raised prices. Dont you think that this is relative?
    I think it is relative because it depends on the amount of money a person earns. For a person that earns 50.000€ every month this would porbably be cheap, if you compare The iPad to the thoshiba handybook it is expensive.
    Have you ever had an MacBook? If not how can you make these assumptions?
    I think you´re reaching a limit where you are suppressing apple user.

  225. hkimon 28 Feb 2013 at 1:50 pm

    1. In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    This happens because apple developed a product that would be different from other products. So the consumers thought it was more smarter to use the money on the new Apple laptop rather than use the money on some other laptop in the market. Because it was new, the consumers thought that there would be something that has been done to the laptop to make it have better functions.

    2. Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    Apple’s profits will eventually even out in the long run (makes normal profit) because after seeing Apple make abnormal profit, they will get the confidence that they will be able to make abnormal profit if they enter the industry so entrepreneurs enter the industry shifting the demand curve to the left. Then it will be more difficult for the firms to make much profit. This will lead to some firms leaving until it balances out with the AC curve just touching the Demand curve at one point. The firms will make normal profit.

    3. What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    Some real ways that companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years is by creating different versions or upgrading versions of everything. For example, samsung (phone part) started off with a Samsung galaxy (or something like that) to a Samsung Y to a Samsung Galaxy Ace –> Samsung Galaxy SII –> Samsung Galaxy Note –> Samsung Galaxy SIII –> Samsung Galaxy Note II and making improvements on the products so more consumers will be attracted to it.

  226. Btunceron 01 Mar 2013 at 12:31 am

    1.In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    This happens because of the successful product differentiation. When Apple is successful at differentiating their product from the competitors, it basically holds a monopoly on that product since if consumer likes it, Apple is the only company he or she can purchase from. This allows Apple to increase prices since they have no competition on that product.

    2.Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    Apple’s profits will decrease over time because other manufacturers will start making similar products; therefore, their product differentiation will be gone. iPhone is the perfect example of this. When the iPhone first came out, there was no other phone like it thus their prices were high. Currently, since there are a lot of other companies making similar products (Motorola, Samsung etc.) they have to reduce prices to compete. Apple has to keep innovating new products to keep the product differentiation and thus higher prices (higher profits).

    3.What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    The Macs are a perfect example of this. Macs unlike normal Windows computers always went for aesthetic appeal. When you look at a MacBook you can see that it looks nothing like a traditional Windows computer (The outside is very curvy and made out of grey metal etc.). The operating system is very different as well. The Mac OS again looks much better than a Windows OS aesthetically. If the consumer wants to get a computer with Mac OS, then they have to buy it from Apple because it is the only supplier whereas a Windows computer can be bought from various different companies like Samsung and Lenovo.
    I wouldn’t buy a MacBook wheel because I do not feel the need for it. Also, its price would be very expensive which can also be a decision factor for some people.

  227. Btunceron 01 Mar 2013 at 1:11 am

    #hkim

    Hi there,

    I enjoyed reading your answer. I liked how you mentioned that companies not just put out new products to keep the product differentiation but they also improve and change things here and there on the existing products as well. I also like your Samsung example.

  228. jduplessison 01 Mar 2013 at 4:45 pm

    • In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    The increase in the demand of apple’s computers is because this a completely new item entering an existing market. The device has something that sets it apart from the others. Apple uses product differentiation to achieve this.

    • Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    I believe that if apple wants to maintain long-run profits they must keep innovating and moving forward rather than just slightly improving technology they already have.
    • What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?
    I would not but a MacBook Wheel.

  229. jduplessison 01 Mar 2013 at 5:16 pm

    # Btuncer I believe that it is not a new market but an existing market with a new product.

  230. jduplessison 01 Mar 2013 at 5:18 pm

    # Csaba I agree with your view on the Wheel.

  231. jlamunoon 01 Mar 2013 at 8:37 pm

    1.- In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    Because once differentiation occurred, Apple stopped being a direct competitor to the PC market by starting its own “product”. Now instead of just Apple PC vs Microsoft PC it becomes Mac and PC.

    2.- Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    They will go down. If it is monopolistically competitive then profits in the long run will be very close to zero. If it wishes to maintain profit in the long run then they must continue innovating and setting themselves apart from the computer market to justify the higher prices.

    3.- What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    Curious design, different software, and the use of the product. I would not buy a MacBook Wheel, never been a fan of Apple products.

  232. jlamunoon 01 Mar 2013 at 8:39 pm

    # jduplessis

    Good points. Specifically your point on Apple’s need to keep on innovating vs improving, they really need to set themselves apart in order to justify the much higher prices they charge for Macs.

  233. irizarryon 01 Mar 2013 at 8:59 pm

    1.In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?
    2.Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?
    3.What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    People see value and the coolness of Apples product, so they think that its much better than the other products in the industry. People want the coolest product for themsleves in order to show they have a Apple product.

    Apples profits will go down to normal profits over time. If it wants to stay the same it will have to keep its loyal cusomers in check with new and innovated prosucts that keep them coming back for more.

    Apple relies on the “simple¨ brand look image. Sleek items along with good customer service is what/why consumers will buy products from companies that give that good customer service.

  234. irizarryon 01 Mar 2013 at 9:24 pm

    #Jlamuno
    I like your points you made on your comments! The ways Apple desgin and innovate there products are special in there own way! (Although they could turn the prices down!

  235. fsetiawanon 02 Mar 2013 at 11:23 pm

    • In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    Because apple usually is depicted as a noble product, and people are starting to think that there’s no way of replacing their needs for computer with other product. Plus with apple people don’t get viruses. That’s sounds like a good deal to me. So most people will switch to apple or keep on buying apple. So the demand curve will stay high or increasing.

    • Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long run?

    To keep it self being seen as a noble product and reason on why do we buy apple rather than other products that are available on the market.

    • What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    The do it by selling the current available technology. Sure the price of putting that advance technology will cost a lot. But there are people who would like to have it on their screen. Then apple put it into their product but the price of that will not be cheap as well. That’s why apple is more expensive than other products I guess. But if this was true than I will still going to buy apple computer.

  236. fsetiawanon 02 Mar 2013 at 11:26 pm

    Hey Irizarry, i dont think being cool is one of the reason. Like forexample the apple product its newest MacBookPro with the retina display. How many company releases a computer with retina display.

  237. Jazzyon 13 Mar 2013 at 10:36 am

    In the graphs above, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    Apple has created a name amongt the people, a brand loyalty. If you have an Apple computer you are very classy and “cool.” Though, Apple has created such differientated computers in contrast to HP, Dell etc etc. Another thing is that people trust Apple. Apple computers dont get viruses, it is a fast operating system and above all the Apple computers design is beautiful. As they keep pulling more and more people into their line of computers, their demand raises and keeps raising with the more differentiated products they produce.

    Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long-run?

    Eventually, Apple’s abornormal profits will go down to normal profits. Unless, Apple keeps coming with new ideas and computers which keep impressing the customers they have at the moment. They need to prove to the consumers that why the consumers should keep purchasing their products. If they dont do that, the consumers will no longer buy Apple products because they wont see any difference between Apple products and another computer brands products, only that other computers are cheaper than the Apple products.

    What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buys a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    The look, the operating system, the use of easier ways to get to files and other programs in the macbook. Another thing is Mac OS is only supplied by Apple. You cannot get this software from any other company. Whereas, Microsoft has many suppliers such as Dell, Lenova etc etc. I would personally not buy the Macbook Wheel, even though I only have Apple products. This is because I think I would get over the top annoyed how much time and effort it would take me writing an essay or doing an assignment on a computer such as that.

  238. Jazzyon 13 Mar 2013 at 10:42 am

    # irizarry

    Hey, I would just like to say that I do not think that consumers buy Apple products only because they think that they are “cool.” That might be one of the aspects why the consumers buy it but there are other things that come into contrast when a consumer picks a Apple products. Also, I do not think that Apple needs to keep their customer service high, they need to keep it at an okay level but if they need to keep their demand and costumers than they need to keep creating innovating ideas for their computers.

  239. mchastanet2on 28 Mar 2013 at 10:17 am

    • In the Apple demand curve graphs found in the blog posting, the slopes of the demand curve increases after successful product differentiation by Apple. Why does this happen?

    Because there are not many other substitutes to Apples product and any good enough to compete with it. Apple products are very revolutionary and different from other products that it is the one that people are most attracted too, and nowadays « addicted too ». Also Apple has been able to make its brand name so big and international that people only buy to product for the brand and not always for the services its gives. So this enables Apple to increase it’s prices without having a decrease in demand (inelastic demand due to no substitutes..) so increasing it’s revenue.

    • Assuming the market for laptop computers is monopolistically competitive, what will likely happen to Apples economic profits over time? What must Apple do if it wishes to maintain its profits in the long run?

    Apple makes supernormal profits over the long and short time period. If the market becomes monopolistically competitive i twill loose many consumers will have to lower it’s prices and will start to make normal profit over the long run. In order to avoid that, Apple needs to keep making new updates on its products, be innovative, and kill competitions buy making the barriers entry hard to enter like making a lot of advertisement…

    • What are some real ways companies like Apple and its competitors have attempted to differentiate their products over the years? Would YOU buy a MacBook Wheel if it were real?

    By using funny/attractive/eye catching advertisement. The use of a simple brand name with a logo.
    I would not buy the MacBook Whell because seeing people struggling to use it like sending emails doesn’t convince me on spending my money on this product. Other example of non-price competition is how they seem to care so much about their consumers so that we feel not let down and in good hands.

  240. mchastanet2on 28 Mar 2013 at 10:20 am

    Reply to # jyoung

    I really agrree with all you answers !

    I agree that if the Market becomes a Monopolistically competitive Apple won’t be such a big firm and wills stop making abnormal profits.
    Just like you i wouldn’t by the MacBook Wheel as im comfortable with my own computer.

    You seem to have grasp very well the idea and the topic, and you gave great responses !

  241. mchastanet2on 28 Mar 2013 at 10:40 am

    Reply to # jyoung

    I really agrree with all you answers !

    If the Market becomes a Monopolistically competitive Apple won’t be such a big firm and wills stop making abnormal profits.
    Just like you i wouldn’t by the MacBook Wheel as im comfortable with my own computer.

    You seem to have grasp very well the idea and the topic, and you gave great responses !

    Max Chastanet

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